Markowitz Efficient Frontier google
In modern portfolio theory, the efficient frontier (or portfolio frontier) is an investment portfolio which occupies the ‘efficient’ parts of the risk-return spectrum. Formally, it is the set of portfolios which satisfy the condition that no other portfolio exists with a higher expected return but with the same standard deviation of return. The efficient frontier was first formulated by Harry Markowitz in 1952. …

Panoptic Feature Pyramid Network (Panoptic FPN) google
The recently introduced panoptic segmentation task has renewed our community’s interest in unifying the tasks of instance segmentation (for thing classes) and semantic segmentation (for stuff classes). However, current state-of-the-art methods for this joint task use separate and dissimilar networks for instance and semantic segmentation, without performing any shared computation. In this work, we aim to unify these methods at the architectural level, designing a single network for both tasks. Our approach is to endow Mask R-CNN, a popular instance segmentation method, with a semantic segmentation branch using a shared Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) backbone. Surprisingly, this simple baseline not only remains effective for instance segmentation, but also yields a lightweight, top-performing method for semantic segmentation. In this work, we perform a detailed study of this minimally extended version of Mask R-CNN with FPN, which we refer to as Panoptic Feature Pyramid Network, and show it is a robust and accurate baseline for both tasks. Given its effectiveness and conceptual simplicity, we hope our method can serve as a strong baseline and aid future research in panoptic segmentation. …

SuperPCA google
As an unsupervised dimensionality reduction method, principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely considered as an efficient and effective preprocessing step for hyperspectral image (HSI) processing and analysis tasks. It takes each band as a whole and globally extracts the most representative bands. However, different homogeneous regions correspond to different objects, whose spectral features are diverse. It is obviously inappropriate to carry out dimensionality reduction through a unified projection for an entire HSI. In this paper, a simple but very effective superpixelwise PCA approach, called SuperPCA, is proposed to learn the intrinsic low-dimensional features of HSIs. In contrast to classical PCA models, SuperPCA has four main properties. (1) Unlike the traditional PCA method based on a whole image, SuperPCA takes into account the diversity in different homogeneous regions, that is, different regions should have different projections. (2) Most of the conventional feature extraction models cannot directly use the spatial information of HSIs, while SuperPCA is able to incorporate the spatial context information into the unsupervised dimensionality reduction by superpixel segmentation. (3) Since the regions obtained by superpixel segmentation have homogeneity, SuperPCA can extract potential low-dimensional features even under noise. (4) Although SuperPCA is an unsupervised method, it can achieve competitive performance when compared with supervised approaches. The resulting features are discriminative, compact, and noise resistant, leading to improved HSI classification performance. Experiments on three public datasets demonstrate that the SuperPCA model significantly outperforms the conventional PCA based dimensionality reduction baselines for HSI classification. The Matlab source code is available at https://…/SuperPCA.

Deep Adversarial Data Augmentation (DADA) google
Deep learning has revolutionized the performance of classification, but meanwhile demands sufficient labeled data for training. Given insufficient data, while many techniques have been developed to help combat overfitting, the challenge remains if one tries to train deep networks, especially in the ill-posed extremely low data regimes: only a small set of labeled data are available, and nothing — including unlabeled data — else. Such regimes arise from practical situations where not only data labeling but also data collection itself is expensive. We propose a deep adversarial data augmentation (DADA) technique to address the problem, in which we elaborately formulate data augmentation as a problem of training a class-conditional and supervised generative adversarial network (GAN). Specifically, a new discriminator loss is proposed to fit the goal of data augmentation, through which both real and augmented samples are enforced to contribute to and be consistent in finding the decision boundaries. Tailored training techniques are developed accordingly. To quantitatively validate its effectiveness, we first perform extensive simulations to show that DADA substantially outperforms both traditional data augmentation and a few GAN-based options. We then extend experiments to three real-world small labeled datasets where existing data augmentation and/or transfer learning strategies are either less effective or infeasible. All results endorse the superior capability of DADA in enhancing the generalization ability of deep networks trained in practical extremely low data regimes. Source code is available at https://…/DADA.