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Continuous Semantic Topic Embedding Model (CSTEM) google
This paper proposes the continuous semantic topic embedding model (CSTEM) which finds latent topic variables in documents using continuous semantic distance function between the topics and the words by means of the variational autoencoder(VAE). The semantic distance could be represented by any symmetric bell-shaped geometric distance function on the Euclidean space, for which the Mahalanobis distance is used in this paper. In order for the semantic distance to perform more properly, we newly introduce an additional model parameter for each word to take out the global factor from this distance indicating how likely it occurs regardless of its topic. It certainly improves the problem that the Gaussian distribution which is used in previous topic model with continuous word embedding could not explain the semantic relation correctly and helps to obtain the higher topic coherence. Through the experiments with the dataset of 20 Newsgroup, NIPS papers and CNN/Dailymail corpus, the performance of the recent state-of-the-art models is accomplished by our model as well as generating topic embedding vectors which makes possible to observe where the topic vectors are embedded with the word vectors in the real Euclidean space and how the topics are related each other semantically. …

Adversarially-Trained Normalized Noisy-Feature Auto-Encoder (ATNNFAE) google
This article proposes Adversarially-Trained Normalized Noisy-Feature Auto-Encoder (ATNNFAE) for byte-level text generation. An ATNNFAE consists of an auto-encoder where the internal code is normalized on the unit sphere and corrupted by additive noise. Simultaneously, a replica of the decoder (sharing the same parameters as the AE decoder) is used as the generator and fed with random latent vectors. An adversarial discriminator is trained to distinguish training samples reconstructed from the AE from samples produced through the random-input generator, making the entire generator-discriminator path differentiable for discrete data like text. The combined effect of noise injection in the code and shared weights between the decoder and the generator can prevent the mode collapsing phenomenon commonly observed in GANs. Since perplexity cannot be applied to non-sequential text generation, we propose a new evaluation method using the total variance distance between frequencies of hash-coded byte-level n-grams (NGTVD). NGTVD is a single benchmark that can characterize both the quality and the diversity of the generated texts. Experiments are offered in 6 large-scale datasets in Arabic, Chinese and English, with comparisons against n-gram baselines and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Ablation study on both the noise level and the discriminator is performed. We find that RNNs have trouble competing with the n-gram baselines, and the ATNNFAE results are generally competitive. …

Accelerated Proximal Stochastic Variance Reduced Gradient (ASVRG) google
This paper proposes an accelerated proximal stochastic variance reduced gradient (ASVRG) method, in which we design a simple and effective momentum acceleration trick. Unlike most existing accelerated stochastic variance reduction methods such as Katyusha, ASVRG has only one additional variable and one momentum parameter. Thus, ASVRG is much simpler than those methods, and has much lower per-iteration complexity. We prove that ASVRG achieves the best known oracle complexities for both strongly convex and non-strongly convex objectives. In addition, we extend ASVRG to mini-batch and non-smooth settings. We also empirically verify our theoretical results and show that the performance of ASVRG is comparable with, and sometimes even better than that of the state-of-the-art stochastic methods. …

Self-Adversarially Learned Bayesian Sampling google
Scalable Bayesian sampling is playing an important role in modern machine learning, especially in the fast-developed unsupervised-(deep)-learning models. While tremendous progresses have been achieved via scalable Bayesian sampling such as stochastic gradient MCMC (SG-MCMC) and Stein variational gradient descent (SVGD), the generated samples are typically highly correlated. Moreover, their sample-generation processes are often criticized to be inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel self-adversarial learning framework that automatically learns a conditional generator to mimic the behavior of a Markov kernel (transition kernel). High-quality samples can be efficiently generated by direct forward passes though a learned generator. Most importantly, the learning process adopts a self-learning paradigm, requiring no information on existing Markov kernels, e.g., knowledge of how to draw samples from them. Specifically, our framework learns to use current samples, either from the generator or pre-provided training data, to update the generator such that the generated samples progressively approach a target distribution, thus it is called self-learning. Experiments on both synthetic and real datasets verify advantages of our framework, outperforming related methods in terms of both sampling efficiency and sample quality. …

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Deep Generative Markov State Model (DeepGenMSM) google
We propose a deep generative Markov State Model (DeepGenMSM) learning framework for inference of metastable dynamical systems and prediction of trajectories. After unsupervised training on time series data, the model contains (i) a probabilistic encoder that maps from high-dimensional configuration space to a small-sized vector indicating the membership to metastable (long-lived) states, (ii) a Markov chain that governs the transitions between metastable states and facilitates analysis of the long-time dynamics, and (iii) a generative part that samples the conditional distribution of configurations in the next time step. The model can be operated in a recursive fashion to generate trajectories to predict the system evolution from a defined starting state and propose new configurations. The DeepGenMSM is demonstrated to provide accurate estimates of the long-time kinetics and generate valid distributions for molecular dynamics (MD) benchmark systems. Remarkably, we show that DeepGenMSMs are able to make long time-steps in molecular configuration space and generate physically realistic structures in regions that were not seen in training data. …

Abstract Dialectical Framework (ADF) google
Abstract Dialectical Frameworks (ADFs) generalize Dung’s argumentation frameworks allowing various relationships among arguments to be expressed in a systematic way. We further generalize ADFs so as to accommodate arbitrary acceptance degrees for the arguments. This makes ADFs applicable in domains where both the initial status of arguments and their relationship are only insufficiently specified by Boolean functions. We define all standard ADF semantics for the weighted case, including grounded, preferred and stable semantics. We illustrate our approach using acceptance degrees from the unit interval and show how other valuation structures can be integrated. In each case it is sufficient to specify how the generalized acceptance conditions are represented by formulas, and to specify the information ordering underlying the characteristic ADF operator. We also present complexity results for problems related to weighted ADFs. …

BRPC google
An industrial-grade RPC framework used throughout Baidu, with 1,000,000+ instances(not counting clients) and thousands kinds of services, called ‘baidu-rpc’ inside Baidu. Only C++ implementation is opensourced right now. …

Neural Semantic Embedding for Entity Normalization (NSEEN) google
Much of human knowledge is encoded in the text, such as scientific publications, books, and the web. Given the rapid growth of these resources, we need automated methods to extract such knowledge into formal, machine-processable structures, such as knowledge graphs. An important task in this process is entity normalization (also called entity grounding, or resolution), which consists of mapping entity mentions in text to canonical entities in well-known reference sets. However, entity resolution is a challenging problem, since there often are many textual forms for a canonical entity. The problem is particularly acute in the scientific domain, such as biology. For example, a protein may have many different names and syntactic variations on these names. To address this problem, we have developed a general, scalable solution based on a deep Siamese neural network model to embed the semantic information about the entities, as well as their syntactic variations. We use these embeddings for fast mapping of new entities to large reference sets, and empirically show the effectiveness of our framework in challenging bio-entity normalization datasets. …

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BentoML google
BentoML is a python library for packaging and deploying machine learning models. It provides high-level APIs for defining an ML service and packaging its artifacts, source code, dependencies, and configurations into a production-system-friendly format that is ready for deployment. …

RetinaNet google
RetinaNet, an one-stage detector, by using focal loss, lower loss is contributed by ‘easy’ negative samples so that the loss is focusing on ‘hard’ samples, which improves the prediction accuracy. With ResNet+FPN as backbone for feature extraction, plus two task-specific subnetworks for classification and bounding box regression, forming the RetinaNet, which achieves state-of-the-art performance, outperforms Faster R-CNN, the well-known two-stage detectors. …

Supervised Fuzzy Partitioning (SFP) google
Centroid-based methods including k-means and fuzzy c-means (FCM) are known as effective and easy-to-implement approaches to clustering purposes in many areas of application. However, these algorithms cannot be directly applied to supervised tasks. We propose a generative model extending centroid-based clustering approaches to be applicable to classification and regression problems. Given an arbitrary loss function, our approach, termed supervised fuzzy partitioning (SFP), incorporates labels information into its objective function through a surrogate term penalizing the risk. We also fuzzify the partition and assign weights to features alongside entropy-based regularization terms, enabling the method to capture more complex data structure, to identify significant features, and to yield better performance facing high-dimensional data. An iterative algorithm based on block coordinate descent (BCD) scheme was formulated to efficiently find a local optimizer. The results show that the SFP performance in classification and supervised dimensionality reduction on synthetic and real-world datasets is competitive with state-of-the-art algorithms such as random forest and SVM. Our method has a major advantage over such methods in that it not only leads to a flexible model but also uses the loss function in training phase without compromising computational efficiency. …

Submanifold Sparse Convolutional Network google
Convolutional network are the de-facto standard for analysing spatio-temporal data such as images, videos, 3D shapes, etc. Whilst some of this data is naturally dense (for instance, photos), many other data sources are inherently sparse. Examples include pen-strokes forming on a piece of paper, or (colored) 3D point clouds that were obtained using a LiDAR scanner or RGB-D camera. Standard ‘dense’ implementations of convolutional networks are very inefficient when applied on such sparse data. We introduce a sparse convolutional operation tailored to processing sparse data that differs from prior work on sparse convolutional networks in that it operates strictly on submanifolds, rather than ‘dilating’ the observation with every layer in the network. Our empirical analysis of the resulting submanifold sparse convolutional networks shows that they perform on par with state-of-the-art methods whilst requiring substantially less computation. …

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Wikibook-Bot google
A Wikipedia book (known as Wikibook) is a collection of Wikipedia articles on a particular theme that is organized as a book. We propose Wikibook-Bot, a machine-learning based technique for automatically generating high quality Wikibooks based on a concept provided by the user. In order to create the Wikibook we apply machine learning algorithms to the different steps of the proposed technique. Firs, we need to decide whether an article belongs to a specific Wikibook – a classification task. Then, we need to divide the chosen articles into chapters – a clustering task – and finally, we deal with the ordering task which includes two subtasks: order articles within each chapter and order the chapters themselves. We propose a set of structural, text-based and unique Wikipedia features, and we show that by using these features, a machine learning classifier can successfully address the above challenges. The predictive performance of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing the auto-generated books to existing 407 Wikibooks which were manually generated by humans. For all the tasks we were able to obtain high and statistically significant results when comparing the Wikibook-bot books to books that were manually generated by Wikipedia contributors …

Byzantine Stochastic Gradient Descent (BSGD) google
This paper studies the problem of distributed stochastic optimization in an adversarial setting where, out of the $m$ machines which allegedly compute stochastic gradients every iteration, an $\alpha$-fraction are Byzantine, and can behave arbitrarily and adversarially. Our main result is a variant of stochastic gradient descent (SGD) which finds $\varepsilon$-approximate minimizers of convex functions in $T = \tilde{O}\big( \frac{1}{\varepsilon^2 m} + \frac{\alpha^2}{\varepsilon^2} \big)$ iterations. In contrast, traditional mini-batch SGD needs $T = O\big( \frac{1}{\varepsilon^2 m} \big)$ iterations, but cannot tolerate Byzantine failures. Further, we provide a lower bound showing that, up to logarithmic factors, our algorithm is information-theoretically optimal both in terms of sampling complexity and time complexity. …

KnOwledge Discovery by Accuracy Maximization (KODAMA) google
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution.
http://www.kodama-project.com


Independently Recurrent Long Short-Term Memory (IndyLSTM) google
We introduce Independently Recurrent Long Short-term Memory cells: IndyLSTMs. These differ from regular LSTM cells in that the recurrent weights are not modeled as a full matrix, but as a diagonal matrix, i.e.\ the output and state of each LSTM cell depends on the inputs and its own output/state, as opposed to the input and the outputs/states of all the cells in the layer. The number of parameters per IndyLSTM layer, and thus the number of FLOPS per evaluation, is linear in the number of nodes in the layer, as opposed to quadratic for regular LSTM layers, resulting in potentially both smaller and faster models. We evaluate their performance experimentally by training several models on the popular \iamondb and CASIA online handwriting datasets, as well as on several of our in-house datasets. We show that IndyLSTMs, despite their smaller size, consistently outperform regular LSTMs both in terms of accuracy per parameter, and in best accuracy overall. We attribute this improved performance to the IndyLSTMs being less prone to overfitting. …

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Scaled Cayley Orthogonal Recurrent Neural Network (scoRNN) google
Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are designed to handle sequential data but suffer from vanishing or exploding gradients. Recent work on Unitary Recurrent Neural Networks (uRNNs) have been used to address this issue and in some cases, exceed the capabilities of Long Short-Term Memory networks (LSTMs). We propose a simpler and novel update scheme to maintain orthogonal recurrent weight matrices without using complex valued matrices. This is done by parametrizing with a skew-symmetric matrix using the Cayley transform. Such a parametrization is unable to represent matrices with negative one eigenvalues, but this limitation is overcome by scaling the recurrent weight matrix by a diagonal matrix consisting of ones and negative ones. The proposed training scheme involves a straightforward gradient calculation and update step. In several experiments, the proposed scaled Cayley orthogonal recurrent neural network (scoRNN) achieves superior results with fewer trainable parameters than other unitary RNNs. …

gcForest google
In this paper, we propose gcForest, a decision tree ensemble approach with performance highly competitive to deep neural networks. In contrast to deep neural networks which require great effort in hyper-parameter tuning, gcForest is much easier to train. Actually, even when gcForest is applied to different data from different domains, excellent performance can be achieved by almost same settings of hyper-parameters. The training process of gcForest is efficient and scalable. In our experiments its training time running on a PC is comparable to that of deep neural networks running with GPU facilities, and the efficiency advantage may be more apparent because gcForest is naturally apt to parallel implementation. Furthermore, in contrast to deep neural networks which require large-scale training data, gcForest can work well even when there are only small-scale training data. Moreover, as a tree-based approach, gcForest should be easier for theoretical analysis than deep neural networks. …

JMP google
SAS created JMP in 1989 to empower scientists and engineers to explore data visually. Since then, JMP has grown from a single product into a family of statistical discovery tools, each one tailored to meet specific needs. All of our software is visual, interactive, comprehensive and extensible. …

PArameterized Clipping acTivation (PACT) google
Deep learning algorithms achieve high classification accuracy at the expense of significant computation cost. To address this cost, a number of quantization schemes have been proposed – but most of these techniques focused on quantizing weights, which are relatively smaller in size compared to activations. This paper proposes a novel quantization scheme for activations during training – that enables neural networks to work well with ultra low precision weights and activations without any significant accuracy degradation. This technique, PArameterized Clipping acTivation (PACT), uses an activation clipping parameter $\alpha$ that is optimized during training to find the right quantization scale. PACT allows quantizing activations to arbitrary bit precisions, while achieving much better accuracy relative to published state-of-the-art quantization schemes. We show, for the first time, that both weights and activations can be quantized to 4-bits of precision while still achieving accuracy comparable to full precision networks across a range of popular models and datasets. We also show that exploiting these reduced-precision computational units in hardware can enable a super-linear improvement in inferencing performance due to a significant reduction in the area of accelerator compute engines coupled with the ability to retain the quantized model and activation data in on-chip memories. …

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Profit-Maximizing A/B Test google
Marketers often use A/B testing as a tactical tool to compare marketing treatments in a test stage and then deploy the better-performing treatment to the remainder of the consumer population. While these tests have traditionally been analyzed using hypothesis testing, we re-frame such tactical tests as an explicit trade-off between the opportunity cost of the test (where some customers receive a sub-optimal treatment) and the potential losses associated with deploying a sub-optimal treatment to the remainder of the population. We derive a closed-form expression for the profit-maximizing test size and show that it is substantially smaller than that typically recommended for a hypothesis test, particularly when the response is noisy or when the total population is small. The common practice of using small holdout groups can be rationalized by asymmetric priors. The proposed test design achieves nearly the same expected regret as the flexible, yet harder-to-implement multi-armed bandit. We demonstrate the benefits of the method in three different marketing contexts — website design, display advertising and catalog tests — in which we estimate priors from past data. In all three cases, the optimal sample sizes are substantially smaller than for a traditional hypothesis test, resulting in higher profit. …

Principle of Minimum Differentiation google
Hotelling’s law is an observation in economics that in many markets it is rational for producers to make their products as similar as possible. This is also referred to as the principle of minimum differentiation as well as Hotelling’s linear city model. The observation was made by Harold Hotelling (1895-1973) in the article ‘Stability in Competition’ in Economic Journal in 1929. The opposing phenomenon is product differentiation, which is usually considered to be a business advantage if executed properly. …

Multitask Learning Encoder (MTLE) google
Learning visual feature representations for video analysis is a daunting task that requires a large amount of training samples and a proper generalization framework. Many of the current state of the art methods for video captioning and movie description rely on simple encoding mechanisms through recurrent neural networks to encode temporal visual information extracted from video data. In this paper, we introduce a novel multitask encoder-decoder framework for automatic semantic description and captioning of video sequences. In contrast to current approaches, our method relies on distinct decoders that train a visual encoder in a multitask fashion. Our system does not depend solely on multiple labels and allows for a lack of training data working even with datasets where only one single annotation is viable per video. Our method shows improved performance over current state of the art methods in several metrics on multi-caption and single-caption datasets. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first method to use a multitask approach for encoding video features. Our method demonstrates its robustness on the Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC) 2017 where our method won the movie description task and its results were ranked among other competitors as the most helpful for the visually impaired. …

Inspection Paradox google
Suppose you are told to inspect a collection of lightbulbs, and there is a 90% of them are faulty and blow out immediately, while 10% of them have a lifetime of 1 month. If you arrive at a random time t 1 t1 and inspect the lifetime duration until it burns (and then leave and come back at some other random time t 2 ,t 2 >t 1 t2,t2>t1), then it is most certain that you will only be checking the good one’s (because all the faulty one’s burn out immediately!), yet these only represent 10% of the total group! …

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2PFPCE google
Deep Convolutional Neural Networks~(CNNs) offer remarkable performance of classifications and regressions in many high-dimensional problems and have been widely utilized in real-word cognitive applications. However, high computational cost of CNNs greatly hinder their deployment in resource-constrained applications, real-time systems and edge computing platforms. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel filter-pruning framework, two-phase filter pruning based on conditional entropy, namely \textit{2PFPCE}, to compress the CNN models and reduce the inference time with marginal performance degradation. In our proposed method, we formulate filter pruning process as an optimization problem and propose a novel filter selection criteria measured by conditional entropy. Based on the assumption that the representation of neurons shall be evenly distributed, we also develop a maximum-entropy filter freeze technique that can reduce over fitting. Two filter pruning strategies — global and layer-wise strategies, are compared. Our experiment result shows that combining these two strategies can achieve a higher neural network compression ratio than applying only one of them under the same accuracy drop threshold. Two-phase pruning, that is, combining both global and layer-wise strategies, achieves 10 X FLOPs reduction and 46% inference time reduction on VGG-16, with 2% accuracy drop. …

Coopetititve Soft Gating Ensemble (CSGE) google
In this article, we proposed the Coopetititve Soft Gating Ensemble or CSGE for general machine learning tasks. The goal of machine learning is to create models which poses a high generalisation capability. But often problems are too complex to be solved by a single model. Therefore, ensemble methods combine predictions of multiple models. The CSGE comprises a comprehensible combination based on three different aspects relating to the overall global historical performance, the local-/situation-dependent and time-dependent performance of its ensemble members. The CSGE can be optimised according to arbitrary loss functions making it accessible for a wider range of problems. We introduce a novel training procedure including a hyper-parameter initialisation at its heart. We show that the CSGE approach reaches state-of-the-art performance for both classification and regression tasks. Still, the CSGE allows to quantify the influence of all base estimators by means of the three weighting aspects in a comprehensive way. In terms of Organic computing (OC), our CSGE approach combines multiple base models towards a self-organising complex system. Moreover, we provide a scikit-learn compatible implementation. …

LexNLP google
LexNLP is an open source Python package focused on natural language processing and machine learning for legal and regulatory text. The package includes functionality to (i) segment documents, (ii) identify key text such as titles and section headings, (iii) extract over eighteen types of structured information like distances and dates, (iv) extract named entities such as companies and geopolitical entities, (v) transform text into features for model training, and (vi) build unsupervised and supervised models such as word embedding or tagging models. LexNLP includes pre-trained models based on thousands of unit tests drawn from real documents available from the SEC EDGAR database as well as various judicial and regulatory proceedings. LexNLP is designed for use in both academic research and industrial applications, and is distributed at https://…/lexpredict-lexnlp.

Zero-Shot Detection (ZSD) google
Current Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL) approaches are restricted to recognition of a single dominant unseen object category in a test image. We hypothesize that this setting is ill-suited for real-world applications where unseen objects appear only as a part of a complex scene, warranting both the `recognition’ and `localization’ of an unseen category. To address this limitation, we introduce a new \emph{`Zero-Shot Detection’} (ZSD) problem setting, which aims at simultaneously recognizing and locating object instances belonging to novel categories without any training examples. We also propose a new experimental protocol for ZSD based on the highly challenging ILSVRC dataset, adhering to practical issues, e.g., the rarity of unseen objects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first end-to-end deep network for ZSD that jointly models the interplay between visual and semantic domain information. To overcome the noise in the automatically derived semantic descriptions, we utilize the concept of meta-classes to design an original loss function that achieves synergy between max-margin class separation and semantic space clustering. Furthermore, we present a baseline approach extended from recognition to detection setting. Our extensive experiments show significant performance boost over the baseline on the imperative yet difficult ZSD problem. …

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Mean Field Reinforcement Learning (MFRL) google
Existing multi-agent reinforcement learning methods are limited typically to a small number of agents. When the agent number increases largely, the learning becomes intractable due to the curse of the dimensionality and the exponential growth of user interactions. In this paper, we present Mean Field Reinforcement Learning where the interactions within the population of agents are approximated by those between a single agent and the average effect from the overall population or neighboring agents; the interplay between the two entities is mutually reinforced: the learning of the individual agent’s optimal policy depends on the dynamics of the population, while the dynamics of the population change according to the collective patterns of the individual policies. We develop practical mean field Q-learning and mean field Actor-Critic algorithms and analyze the convergence of the solution. Experiments on resource allocation, Ising model estimation, and battle game tasks verify the learning effectiveness of our mean field approaches in handling many-agent interactions in population. …

Monica google
Can you remember the names of the children of all your friends? Can you remember the wedding anniversary of your brother? Can you tell the last time you called your grand mother and what you talked about? Monica lets you quickly and easily log all those information so you can be a better friend, family member or spouse. …

Probabilistic Causation google
Probabilistic causation is a concept in a group of philosophical theories that aim to characterize the relationship between cause and effect using the tools of probability theory. The central idea behind these theories is that causes raise the probabilities of their effects, all else being equal. Interpreting causation as a deterministic relation means that if A causes B, then A must always be followed by B. In this sense, war does not cause deaths, nor does smoking cause cancer. As a result, many turn to a notion of probabilistic causation. Informally, A probabilistically causes B if A’s occurrence increases the probability of B. This is sometimes interpreted to reflect imperfect knowledge of a deterministic system but other times interpreted to mean that the causal system under study has an inherently indeterministic nature. (Propensity probability is an analogous idea, according to which probabilities have an objective existence and are not just limitations in a subject’s knowledge). Philosophers such as Hugh Mellor and Patrick Suppes have defined causation in terms of a cause preceding and increasing the probability of the effect. …

Self-Imitation Learning (SIL) google
This paper proposes Self-Imitation Learning (SIL), a simple off-policy actor-critic algorithm that learns to reproduce the agent’s past good decisions. This algorithm is designed to verify our hypothesis that exploiting past good experiences can indirectly drive deep exploration. Our empirical results show that SIL significantly improves advantage actor-critic (A2C) on several hard exploration Atari games and is competitive to the state-of-the-art count-based exploration methods. We also show that SIL improves proximal policy optimization (PPO) on MuJoCo tasks. …

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Rooted Tree google
A rooted tree is a tree in which one vertex has been designated the root. The edges of a rooted tree can be assigned a natural orientation, either away from or towards the root, in which case the structure becomes a directed rooted tree. …

POPQORN google
The vulnerability to adversarial attacks has been a critical issue for deep neural networks. Addressing this issue requires a reliable way to evaluate the robustness of a network. Recently, several methods have been developed to compute $\textit{robustness quantification}$ for neural networks, namely, certified lower bounds of the minimum adversarial perturbation. Such methods, however, were devised for feed-forward networks, e.g. multi-layer perceptron or convolutional networks. It remains an open problem to quantify robustness for recurrent networks, especially LSTM and GRU. For such networks, there exist additional challenges in computing the robustness quantification, such as handling the inputs at multiple steps and the interaction between gates and states. In this work, we propose $\textit{POPQORN}$ ($\textbf{P}$ropagated-$\textbf{o}$ut$\textbf{p}$ut $\textbf{Q}$uantified R$\textbf{o}$bustness for $\textbf{RN}$Ns), a general algorithm to quantify robustness of RNNs, including vanilla RNNs, LSTMs, and GRUs. We demonstrate its effectiveness on different network architectures and show that the robustness quantification on individual steps can lead to new insights. …

Adaptive Quantile Low-Rank Matrix Factorization (AQ-LRMF) google
Low-rank matrix factorization (LRMF) has received much popularity owing to its successful applications in both computer vision and data mining. By assuming the noise term to come from a Gaussian, Laplace or a mixture of Gaussian distributions, significant efforts have been made on optimizing the (weighted) $L_1$ or $L_2$-norm loss between an observed matrix and its bilinear factorization. However, the type of noise distribution is generally unknown in real applications and inappropriate assumptions will inevitably deteriorate the behavior of LRMF. On the other hand, real data are often corrupted by skew rather than symmetric noise. To tackle this problem, this paper presents a novel LRMF model called AQ-LRMF by modeling noise with a mixture of asymmetric Laplace distributions. An efficient algorithm based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is also offered to estimate the parameters involved in AQ-LRMF. The AQ-LRMF model possesses the advantage that it can approximate noise well no matter whether the real noise is symmetric or skew. The core idea of AQ-LRMF lies in solving a weighted $L_1$ problem with weights being learned from data. The experiments conducted with synthetic and real datasets show that AQ-LRMF outperforms several state-of-the-art techniques. Furthermore, AQ-LRMF also has the superiority over the other algorithms that it can capture local structural information contained in real images. …

Deep Self-Organization google
Human professionals are often required to make decisions based on complex multivariate time series measurements in an online setting, e.g. in health care. Since human cognition is not optimized to work well in high-dimensional spaces, these decisions benefit from interpretable low-dimensional representations. However, many representation learning algorithms for time series data are difficult to interpret. This is due to non-intuitive mappings from data features to salient properties of the representation and non-smoothness over time. To address this problem, we propose to couple a variational autoencoder to a discrete latent space and introduce a topological structure through the use of self-organizing maps. This allows us to learn discrete representations of time series, which give rise to smooth and interpretable embeddings with superior clustering performance. Furthermore, to allow for a probabilistic interpretation of our method, we integrate a Markov model in the latent space. This model uncovers the temporal transition structure, improves clustering performance even further and provides additional explanatory insights as well as a natural representation of uncertainty. We evaluate our model on static (Fashion-)MNIST data, a time series of linearly interpolated (Fashion-)MNIST images, a chaotic Lorenz attractor system with two macro states, as well as on a challenging real world medical time series application. In the latter experiment, our representation uncovers meaningful structure in the acute physiological state of a patient. …

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Cascade Attribute Learning Network (CALNet) google
We propose the cascade attribute learning network (CALNet), which can learn attributes in a control task separately and assemble them together. Our contribution is twofold: first we propose attribute learning in reinforcement learning (RL). Attributes used to be modeled using constraint functions or terms in the objective function, making it hard to transfer. Attribute learning, on the other hand, models these task properties as modules in the policy network. We also propose using novel cascading compensative networks in the CALNet to learn and assemble attributes. Using the CALNet, one can zero shoot an unseen task by separately learning all its attributes, and assembling the attribute modules. We have validated the capacity of our model on a wide variety of control problems with attributes in time, position, velocity and acceleration phases. …

Collaborative Convolutional Network (CoCoNet) google
We present an end-to-end CNN architecture for fine-grained visual recognition called Collaborative Convolutional Network (CoCoNet). The network uses a collaborative filter after the convolutional layers to represent an image as an optimal weighted collaboration of features learned from training samples as a whole rather than one at a time. This gives CoCoNet more power to encode the fine-grained nature of the data with limited samples in an end-to-end fashion. We perform a detailed study of the performance with 1-stage and 2-stage transfer learning and different configurations with benchmark architectures like AlexNet and VggNet. The ablation study shows that the proposed method outperforms its constituent parts considerably and consistently. CoCoNet also outperforms the baseline popular deep learning based fine-grained recognition method, namely Bilinear-CNN (BCNN) with statistical significance. Experiments have been performed on the fine-grained species recognition problem, but the method is general enough to be applied to other similar tasks. Lastly, we also introduce a new public dataset for fine-grained species recognition, that of Indian endemic birds and have reported initial results on it. The training metadata and new dataset are available through the corresponding author. …

ISBNet google
Recent years have witnessed growing interests in designing efficient neural networks and neural architecture search (NAS). Although remarkable efficiency and accuracy have been achieved, existing expert designed and NAS models neglect that input instances are of varying complexity thus different amount of computation is required. Therefore, inference with a fixed model that processes all instances through the same transformations would waste plenty of computational resources. Customizing the model capacity in an instance-aware manner is highly demanded. In this paper, we introduce a novel network ISBNet to address this issue, which supports efficient instance-level inference by selectively bypassing transformation branches of infinitesimal importance weight. We also propose lightweight hypernetworks SelectionNet to generate these importance weights instance-wisely. Extensive experiments have been conducted to evaluate the efficiency of ISBNet and the results show that ISBNet achieves extremely efficient inference comparing to existing networks. For example, ISBNet takes only 12.45% parameters and 45.79% FLOPs of the state-of-the-art efficient network ShuffleNetV2 with comparable accuracy. …

DeepTag google
In many under-resourced settings, clinicians lack time and expertise to annotate patients with standard medical diagnosis codes. Veterinary medicine is an example of this and clinical encounters are largely captured in free text notes which are not labeled with diagnosis code. The lack of such standard coding makes it challenging to apply data science to improve patient care. It is also a major impediment to translational research, where, for example, we would like to leverage veterinary data to inform drug development for humans. We develop a deep learning algorithm, DeepTag, to automatically infer diagnosis codes from veterinarian free text notes. DeepTag is trained on a newly curated dataset of 112,558 veterinary notes manually annotated by experts. DeepTag extends multi-task LSTM with an improved hierarchical objective that captures structures between diseases. To foster human-machine collaboration, DeepTag also learns to abstain in examples when it is uncertain and defer them to human experts, resulting in improved performance of the model. DeepTag accurately infers disease codes from free text even in challenging out-of-domain settings where the text comes from different clinics than the ones used for training. It enables automated disease annotation across a broad range of clinical diagnoses with minimal pre-processing. The technical framework in this work can be applied in other medical domains that currently lack medical coding infrastructure. …