This chapter focuses on Internet of Things from the nanoscale point of view. The chapter starts with section 1 which provides an introduction of nanothings and nanotechnologies. The nanoscale communication paradigms and the different approaches are discussed for nanodevices development. Nanodevice characteristics are discussed and the architecture of wireless nanodevices are outlined. Section 2 describes Internet of NanoThing(IoNT), its network architecture, and the challenges of nanoscale communication which is essential for enabling IoNT. Section 3 gives some practical applications of IoNT. The internet of Bio-NanoThing (IoBNT) and relevant biomedical applications are discussed. Other Applications such as military, industrial, and environmental applications are also outlined. Internet of NanoThings: Concepts and Applications
“Big Data is like teenage sex: everyone talks about it, nobody really knows how to do it, everyone thinks everyone else is doing it, so everyone claims they are doing it.” Dan Ariely
• Geometric Intuituion of Logistic Regression
• Optimisation Function
• Sigmoid Function
• Overfitting and Underfitting
• Regularisation – L2 and L1
Beetle Antennae Search (BAS)
Meta-heuristic algorithms have become very popular because of powerful performance on the optimization problem. A new algorithm called beetle antennae search algorithm (BAS) is proposed in the paper inspired by the searching behavior of longhorn beetles. The BAS algorithm imitates the function of antennae and the random walking mechanism of beetles in nature, and then two main steps of detecting and searching are implemented. Finally, the algorithm is benchmarked on 2 well-known test functions, in which the numerical results validate the efficacy of the proposed BAS algorithm.
BSAS: Beetle Swarm Antennae Search Algorithm for Optimization Problems …
Prior-Aware Dual Decomposition (PADD)
Spectral topic modeling algorithms operate on matrices/tensors of word co-occurrence statistics to learn topic-specific word distributions. This approach removes the dependence on the original documents and produces substantial gains in efficiency and provable topic inference, but at a cost: the model can no longer provide information about the topic composition of individual documents. Recently Thresholded Linear Inverse (TLI) is proposed to map the observed words of each document back to its topic composition. However, its linear characteristics limit the inference quality without considering the important prior information over topics. In this paper, we evaluate Simple Probabilistic Inverse (SPI) method and novel Prior-aware Dual Decomposition (PADD) that is capable of learning document-specific topic compositions in parallel. Experiments show that PADD successfully leverages topic correlations as a prior, notably outperforming TLI and learning quality topic compositions comparable to Gibbs sampling on various data. …
Anytime Stochastic Gradient Descent
In this paper, we focus on approaches to parallelizing stochastic gradient descent (SGD) wherein data is farmed out to a set of workers, the results of which, after a number of updates, are then combined at a central master node. Although such synchronized SGD approaches parallelize well in idealized computing environments, they often fail to realize their promised computational acceleration in practical settings. One cause is slow workers, termed stragglers, who can cause the fusion step at the master node to stall, which greatly slowing convergence. In many straggler mitigation approaches work completed by these nodes, while only partial, is discarded completely. In this paper, we propose an approach to parallelizing synchronous SGD that exploits the work completed by all workers. The central idea is to fix the computation time of each worker and then to combine distinct contributions of all workers. We provide a convergence analysis and optimize the combination function. Our numerical results demonstrate an improvement of several factors of magnitude in comparison to existing methods. …
purrr’-Like Apply Functions Over Input Elements (dapr)
An easy-to-use, dependency-free set of functions for iterating over elements of various input objects. Functions are wrappers around base apply()/lappl …
Evaluation of Failure Time Surrogate Endpoints in Individual Patient Data Meta-Analyses (surrosurv)
Provides functions for the evaluation of surrogate endpoints when both the surrogate and the true endpoint are failure time variables. The approaches i …
Density Surface Modelling of Distance Sampling Data (dsm)
Density surface modelling of line transect data. A Generalized Additive Model-based approach is used to calculate spatially-explicit estimates of anima …
• What are genetic algorithms?
• GA in ML?
• What does a solution look like?
• GA process and its operators
• The fitness function
• Genetics Algorithms in R!
• Try it yourself
• Relating concepts
• Demonstrate how to use Pandas to analyze Time Series
• Understand how to construct a hypothesis test
• Use simulation to perform hypothesis testing
• Show the importance of accounting for multiple comparison bias
Time Series Classification (TSC) is an important and challenging problem in data mining. With the increase of time series data availability, hundreds of TSC algorithms have been proposed. Among these methods, only a few have considered Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to perform this task. This is surprising as deep learning has seen very successful applications in the last years. DNNs have indeed revolutionized the field of computer vision especially with the advent of novel deeper architectures such as Residual and Convolutional Neural Networks. Apart from images, sequential data such as text and audio can also be processed with DNNs to reach state of the art performance for document classification and speech recognition. In this article, we study the current state of the art performance of deep learning algorithms for TSC by presenting an empirical study of the most recent DNN architectures for TSC. We give an overview of the most successful deep learning applications in various time series domains under a unified taxonomy of DNNs for TSC. We also provide an open source deep learning framework to the TSC community where we implemented each of the compared approaches and evaluated them on a univariate TSC benchmark (the UCR archive) and 12 multivariate time series datasets. By training 8,730 deep learning models on 97 time series datasets, we propose the most exhaustive study of DNNs for TSC to date. Deep learning for time series classification: a review
This paper presents Co-Arg, a new type of cognitive assistant to an intelligence analyst that enables the synergistic integration of analyst imagination and expertise, computer knowledge and critical reasoning, and crowd wisdom, to draw defensible and persuasive conclusions from masses of evidence of all types, in a world that is changing all the time. Co-Arg’s goal is to improve the quality of the analytic results and enhance their understandability for both experts and novices. The performed analysis is based on a sound and transparent argumentation that links evidence to conclusions in a way that shows very clearly how the conclusions have been reached, what evidence was used and how, what is not known, and what assumptions have been made. The analytic results are presented in a report describes the analytic conclusion and its probability, the main favoring and disfavoring arguments, the justification of the key judgments and assumptions, and the missing information that might increase the accuracy of the solution. …
Locally Smoothed Neural Network (LSNN)
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and the locally connected layer are limited in capturing the importance and relations of different local receptive fields, which are often crucial for tasks such as face verification, visual question answering, and word sequence prediction. To tackle the issue, we propose a novel locally smoothed neural network (LSNN) in this paper. The main idea is to represent the weight matrix of the locally connected layer as the product of the kernel and the smoother, where the kernel is shared over different local receptive fields, and the smoother is for determining the importance and relations of different local receptive fields. Specifically, a multi-variate Gaussian function is utilized to generate the smoother, for modeling the location relations among different local receptive fields. Furthermore, the content information can also be leveraged by setting the mean and precision of the Gaussian function according to the content. Experiments on some variant of MNIST clearly show our advantages over CNN and locally connected layer. …
Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGM)
Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a family of statistical models for analyzing data about social and other networks. Many metrics exist to describe the structural features of an observed network such as the density, centrality, or assortativity. However, these metrics describe the observed network which is only one instance of a large number of possible alternative networks. This set of alternative networks may have similar or dissimilar structural features. To support statistical inference on the processes influencing the formation of network structure, a statistical model should consider the set of all possible alternative networks weighted on their similarity to an observed network. However because network data is inherently relational, it violates the assumptions of independence and identical distribution of standard statistical models like linear regression. Alternative statistical models should reflect the uncertainty associated with a given observation, permit inference about the relative frequency about network substructures of theoretical interest, disambiguating the influence of confounding processes, efficiently representing complex structures, and linking local-level processes to global-level properties. Degree Preserving Randomization, for example, is a specific way in which an observed network could be considered in terms of multiple alternative networks. …