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Perfect Privacy google
The problem of private data disclosure is studied from an information theoretic perspective. Considering a pair of correlated random variables $(X,Y)$, where $Y$ denotes the observed data while $X$ denotes the private latent variables, the following problem is addressed: What is the maximum information that can be revealed about $Y$, while disclosing no information about $X$? Assuming that a Markov kernel maps $Y$ to the revealed information $U$, it is shown that the maximum mutual information between $Y$ and $U$, i.e., $I(Y;U)$, can be obtained as the solution of a standard linear program, when $X$ and $U$ are required to be independent, called \textit{perfect privacy}. This solution is shown to be greater than or equal to the \textit{non-private information about $X$ carried by $Y$.} Maximal information disclosure under perfect privacy is is shown to be the solution of a linear program also when the utility is measured by the reduction in the mean square error, $\mathbb{E}[(Y-U)^2]$, or the probability of error, $\mbox{Pr}$. For jointly Gaussian $(X,Y)$, it is shown that perfect privacy is not possible if the kernel is applied to only $Y$; whereas perfect privacy can be achieved if the mapping is from both $X$ and $Y$; that is, if the private latent variables can also be observed at the encoder. Next, measuring the utility and privacy by $I(Y;U)$ and $I(X;U)$, respectively, the slope of the optimal utility-privacy trade-off curve is studied when $I(X;U)=0$. Finally, through a similar but independent analysis, an alternative characterization of the maximal correlation between two random variables is provided. …

Event Extraction (EE) google
One common application of text mining is event extraction, which encompasses deducing specific knowledge concerning incidents referred to in texts. Event extraction can be applied to various types of written text, e.g., (online) news messages, blogs, and manuscripts. …

Deep Feature Aggregation Network (DFANet) google
This paper introduces an extremely efficient CNN architecture named DFANet for semantic segmentation under resource constraints. Our proposed network starts from a single lightweight backbone and aggregates discriminative features through sub-network and sub-stage cascade respectively. Based on the multi-scale feature propagation, DFANet substantially reduces the number of parameters, but still obtains sufficient receptive field and enhances the model learning ability, which strikes a balance between the speed and segmentation performance. Experiments on Cityscapes and CamVid datasets demonstrate the superior performance of DFANet with 8$\times$ less FLOPs and 2$\times$ faster than the existing state-of-the-art real-time semantic segmentation methods while providing comparable accuracy. Specifically, it achieves 70.3\% Mean IOU on the Cityscapes test dataset with only 1.7 GFLOPs and a speed of 160 FPS on one NVIDIA Titan X card, and 71.3\% Mean IOU with 3.4 GFLOPs while inferring on a higher resolution image. …

Discriminative Model google
Discriminative models, also called conditional models, are a class of models used in machine learning for modeling the dependence of an unobserved variable y on an observed variable x. Within a probabilistic framework, this is done by modeling the conditional probability distribution P(y|x), which can be used for predicting y from x. Discriminative models, as opposed to generative models, do not allow one to generate samples from the joint distribution of x and y. However, for tasks such as classification and regression that do not require the joint distribution, discriminative models can yield superior performance. On the other hand, generative models are typically more flexible than discriminative models in expressing dependencies in complex learning tasks. In addition, most discriminative models are inherently supervised and cannot easily be extended to unsupervised learning. Application specific details ultimately dictate the suitability of selecting a discriminative versus generative model. …

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Named Entity Sequence Classification (NESC) google
Named Entity Recognition (NER) aims at locating and classifying named entities in text. In some use cases of NER, including cases where detected named entities are used in creating content recommendations, it is crucial to have a reliable confidence level for the detected named entities. In this work we study the problem of finding confidence levels for detected named entities. We refer to this problem as Named Entity Sequence Classification (NESC). We frame NESC as a binary classification problem and we use NER as well as recurrent neural networks to find the probability of candidate named entity is a real named entity. We apply this approach to Tweet texts and we show how we could find named entities with high confidence levels from Tweets. …

Diversity-Driven Extensible Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning (DEHRL) google
Hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) has recently shown promising advances on speeding up learning, improving the exploration, and discovering intertask transferable skills. Most recent works focus on HRL with two levels, i.e., a master policy manipulates subpolicies, which in turn manipulate primitive actions. However, HRL with multiple levels is usually needed in many real-world scenarios, whose ultimate goals are highly abstract, while their actions are very primitive. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a diversity-driven extensible Hierarchical reinforcement learning (DEHRL), where an extensible and scalable framework is built and learned levelwise to realize HRL with multiple levels. DEHRL follows a popular assumption: diverse subpolicies are useful, i.e., subpolicies are believed to be more useful if they are more diverse. However, existing implementations of this diversity assumption usually have their own drawbacks, which makes them inapplicable to HRL with multiple levels. Consequently, we further propose a novel diversity-driven solution to achieve this assumption in DEHRL. Experimental studies evaluate DEHRL with five baselines from four perspectives in two domains; the results show that DEHRL outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in all four aspects. …

Valence Aware Dictionary and sEntiment Reasoner (VADER) google
VADER Sentiment Analysis. VADER (Valence Aware Dictionary and sEntiment Reasoner) is a lexicon and rule-based sentiment analysis tool that is specifically attuned to sentiments expressed in social media, and works well on texts from other domains. …

Exhaust Data google
In simple words exhaust data is the data which is generated without a specific purpose in mind and immediately might not reveal to be important for organizations to spend money on curating, storing and using it. …

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SPLINE-Net google
This paper solves the Sparse Photometric stereo through Lighting Interpolation and Normal Estimation using a generative Network (SPLINE-Net). SPLINE-Net contains a lighting interpolation network to generate dense lighting observations given a sparse set of lights as inputs followed by a normal estimation network to estimate surface normals. Both networks are jointly constrained by the proposed symmetric and asymmetric loss functions to enforce isotropic constrain and perform outlier rejection of global illumination effects. SPLINE-Net is verified to outperform existing methods for photometric stereo of general BRDFs by using only ten images of different lights instead of using nearly one hundred images. …

Data Science Virtual Machine (DSVM) google
The Data Science Virtual Machine runs on Windows Server 2012 and contains popular tools for data exploration, modeling and development activities. The main tools included are Microsoft R Server Developer Edition (An enterprise ready scalable R framework), Anaconda Python distribution, Julia Pro developer edition, Jupyter notebooks for R, Python and Julia, Visual Studio Community Edition with Python, R and node.js tools, Power BI desktop, SQL Server 2016 Developer edition including support In-Database analytics using Microsoft R Server. It also includes open source deep learning tools like Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit (CNTK 2.0) and mxnet; ML algorithms like xgboost, Vowpal Wabbit. The Azure SDK and libraries on the VM allows you to build your applications using various services in the cloud that are part of the Cortana Analytics Suite which includes Azure Machine Learning, Azure data factory, Stream Analytics and SQL Datawarehouse, Hadoop, Data Lake, Spark and more. You can deploy models as web services in the cloud on Azure Machine Learning OR deploy them either on the cloud or on-premises using the Microsoft R Server operationalization. …

Jointly Multiple Events Extraction (JMEE) google
Event extraction is of practical utility in natural language processing. In the real world, it is a common phenomenon that multiple events existing in the same sentence, where extracting them are more difficult than extracting a single event. Previous works on modeling the associations between events by sequential modeling methods suffer a lot from the low efficiency in capturing very long-range dependencies. In this paper, we propose a novel Jointly Multiple Events Extraction (JMEE) framework to jointly extract multiple event triggers and arguments by introducing syntactic shortcut arcs to enhance information flow and attention-based graph convolution networks to model graph information. The experiment results demonstrate that our proposed framework achieves competitive results compared with state-of-the-art methods. …

Distributed Randomized Gradient-Free Mirror Descent (DRGFMD) google
This paper is concerned with multi-agent optimization problem. A distributed randomized gradient-free mirror descent (DRGFMD) method is developed by introducing a randomized gradient-free oracle in the mirror descent scheme where the non-Euclidean Bregman divergence is used. The classical gradient descent method is generalized without using subgradient information of objective functions. The proposed algorithm is the first distributed non-Euclidean zeroth-order method which achieves an $O(1/\sqrt{T})$ convergence rate, recovering the best known optimal rate of distributed compact constrained convex optimization. Also, the DRGFMD algorithm achieves an $O(\ln T/T)$ convergence rate for the strongly convex constrained optimization case. The rate matches the best known non-compact constraint result. Moreover, a decentralized reciprocal weighted average approximating sequence is investigated and first used in distributed algorithm. A class of convergence rates are also achieved for the algorithm with weighted averaging (DRGFMD-WA). The technique on constructing the decentralized weighted average sequence provides new insight in searching for minimizers in distributed algorithms. …

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Implicit Kernel Learning (IKL) google
Kernels are powerful and versatile tools in machine learning and statistics. Although the notion of universal kernels and characteristic kernels has been studied, kernel selection still greatly influences the empirical performance. While learning the kernel in a data driven way has been investigated, in this paper we explore learning the spectral distribution of kernel via implicit generative models parametrized by deep neural networks. We called our method Implicit Kernel Learning (IKL). The proposed framework is simple to train and inference is performed via sampling random Fourier features. We investigate two applications of the proposed IKL as examples, including generative adversarial networks with MMD (MMD GAN) and standard supervised learning. Empirically, MMD GAN with IKL outperforms vanilla predefined kernels on both image and text generation benchmarks; using IKL with Random Kitchen Sinks also leads to substantial improvement over existing state-of-the-art kernel learning algorithms on popular supervised learning benchmarks. Theory and conditions for using IKL in both applications are also studied as well as connections to previous state-of-the-art methods. …

DYNAMIC google
In this paper we present DYNAMIC, an open-source C++ library implementing dynamic compressed data structures for string manipulation. Our framework includes useful tools such as searchable partial sums, succinct/gap-encoded bitvectors, and entropy/run-length compressed strings and FM-indexes. We prove close-to-optimal theoretical bounds for the resources used by our structures, and show that our theoretical predictions are empirically tightly verified in practice. To conclude, we turn our attention to applications. We compare the performance of four recently-published compression algorithms implemented using DYNAMIC with those of state-of-the-art tools performing the same task. Our experiments show that algorithms making use of dynamic compressed data structures can be up to three orders of magnitude more space-efficient (albeit slower) than classical ones performing the same tasks. …

I-GOS google
Understanding and interpreting the decisions made by deep learning models is valuable in many domains. In computer vision, computing heatmaps from a deep network is a popular approach for visualizing and understanding deep networks. However, heatmaps that do not correlate with the network may mislead human, hence the performance of heatmaps in providing a faithful explanation to the underlying deep network is crucial. In this paper, we propose I-GOS, which optimizes for a heatmap so that the classification scores on the masked image would maximally decrease. The main novelty of the approach is to compute descent directions based on the integrated gradients instead of the normal gradient, which avoids local optima and speeds up convergence. Compared with previous approaches, our method can flexibly compute heatmaps at any resolution for different user needs. Extensive experiments on several benchmark datasets show that the heatmaps produced by our approach are more correlated with the decision of the underlying deep network, in comparison with other state-of-the-art approaches. …

Subspace Outlier Degree (SOD) google
(see Definition 1) …

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Traj-clusiVAT-based TP google
Trajectory prediction (TP) is of great importance for a wide range of location-based applications in intelligent transport systems such as location-based advertising, route planning, traffic management, and early warning systems. In the last few years, the widespread use of GPS navigation systems and wireless communication technology enabled vehicles has resulted in huge volumes of trajectory data. The task of utilizing this data employing spatio-temporal techniques for trajectory prediction in an efficient and accurate manner is an ongoing research problem. Existing TP approaches are limited to short-term predictions. Moreover, they cannot handle a large volume of trajectory data for long-term prediction. To address these limitations, we propose a scalable clustering and Markov chain based hybrid framework, called Traj-clusiVAT-based TP, for both short-term and long-term trajectory prediction, which can handle a large number of overlapping trajectories in a dense road network. In addition, Traj-clusiVAT can also determine the number of clusters, which represent different movement behaviours in input trajectory data. In our experiments, we compare our proposed approach with a mixed Markov model (MMM)-based scheme, and a trajectory clustering, NETSCAN-based TP method for both short- and long-term trajectory predictions. We performed our experiments on two real, vehicle trajectory datasets, including a large-scale trajectory dataset consisting of 3.28 million trajectories obtained from 15,061 taxis in Singapore over a period of one month. Experimental results on two real trajectory datasets show that our proposed approach outperforms the existing approaches in terms of both short- and long-term prediction performances, based on prediction accuracy and distance error (in km). …

Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks (RNN-SPN) google
We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input images without deteriorating performance. The down-sampling in RNN-SPN can be thought of as adaptive down-sampling that minimizes the information loss in the regions of interest. We attribute the superior performance of the RNN-SPN to the fact that it can attend to a sequence of regions of interest.
GitXiv


LOcal Group Graphical Lasso Estimation (loggle) google
In this paper, we study time-varying graphical models based on data measured over a temporal grid. Such models are motivated by the needs to describe and understand evolving interacting relationships among a set of random variables in many real applications, for instance the study of how stocks interact with each other and how such interactions change over time. We propose a new model, LOcal Group Graphical Lasso Estimation (loggle), under the assumption that the graph topology changes gradually over time. Specifically, loggle uses a novel local group-lasso type penalty to efficiently incorporate information from neighboring time points and to impose structural smoothness of the graphs. We implement an ADMM based algorithm to fit the loggle model. This algorithm utilizes blockwise fast computation and pseudo-likelihood approximation to improve computational efficiency. An R package loggle has also been developed. We evaluate the performance of loggle by simulation experiments. We also apply loggle to S&P 500 stock price data and demonstrate that loggle is able to reveal the interacting relationships among stocks and among industrial sectors in a time period that covers the recent global financial crisis. …

ProLoNet google
Deep reinforcement learning has seen great success across a breadth of tasks such as in game playing and robotic manipulation. However, the modern practice of attempting to learn tabula rasa disregards the logical structure of many domains and the wealth of readily-available human domain experts’ knowledge that could help “warm start” the learning process. Further, learning from demonstration techniques are not yet sufficient to infer this knowledge through sampling-based mechanisms in large state and action spaces, or require immense amounts of data. We present a new reinforcement learning architecture that can encode expert knowledge, in the form of propositional logic, directly into a neural, tree-like structure of fuzzy propositions that are amenable to gradient descent. We show that our novel architecture is able to outperform reinforcement and imitation learning techniques across an array of canonical challenge problems for artificial intelligence. …

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Dual-State Recurrent Network (DSRN) google
Advances in image super-resolution (SR) have recently benefited significantly from rapid developments in deep neural networks. Inspired by these recent discoveries, we note that many state-of-the-art deep SR architectures can be reformulated as a single-state recurrent neural network (RNN) with finite unfoldings. In this paper, we explore new structures for SR based on this compact RNN view, leading us to a dual-state design, the Dual-State Recurrent Network (DSRN). Compared to its single state counterparts that operate at a fixed spatial resolution, DSRN exploits both low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) signals jointly. Recurrent signals are exchanged between these states in both directions (both LR to HR and HR to LR) via delayed feedback. Extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluations on benchmark datasets and on a recent challenge demonstrate that the proposed DSRN performs favorably against state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both memory consumption and predictive accuracy. …

Structured Factored Inference (SFI) google
Reasoning on large and complex real-world models is a computationally difficult task, yet one that is required for effective use of many AI applications. A plethora of inference algorithms have been developed that work well on specific models or only on parts of general models. Consequently, a system that can intelligently apply these inference algorithms to different parts of a model for fast reasoning is highly desirable. We introduce a new framework called structured factored inference (SFI) that provides the foundation for such a system. Using models encoded in a probabilistic programming language, SFI provides a sound means to decompose a model into sub-models, apply an inference algorithm to each sub-model, and combine the resulting information to answer a query. Our results show that SFI is nearly as accurate as exact inference yet retains the benefits of approximate inference methods. …

Online Convex Ensemble StrongLy Adaptive Dynamic Learning (OCELAD) google
Recent work in distance metric learning has focused on learning transformations of data that best align with specified pairwise similarity and dissimilarity constraints, often supplied by a human observer. The learned transformations lead to improved retrieval, classification, and clustering algorithms due to the better adapted distance or similarity measures. Here, we address the problem of learning these transformations when the underlying constraint generation process is nonstationary. This nonstationarity can be due to changes in either the ground-truth clustering used to generate constraints or changes in the feature subspaces in which the class structure is apparent. We propose Online Convex Ensemble StrongLy Adaptive Dynamic Learning (OCELAD), a general adaptive, online approach for learning and tracking optimal metrics as they change over time that is highly robust to a variety of nonstationary behaviors in the changing metric. We apply the OCELAD framework to an ensemble of online learners. Specifically, we create a retro-initialized composite objective mirror descent (COMID) ensemble (RICE) consisting of a set of parallel COMID learners with different learning rates, demonstrate RICE-OCELAD on both real and synthetic data sets and show significant performance improvements relative to previously proposed batch and online distance metric learning algorithms. …

Sharma-Mittal Entropy of a Graph google
In this article, we introduce the Sharma-Mittal entropy of a graph, which is a generalization of the existing idea of the von-Neumann entropy. The well-known R{\’e}nyi, Thallis, and von-Neumann entropies can be expressed as limiting cases of Sharma-Mittal entropy. We have explicitly calculated them for cycle, path, and complete graphs. Also, we have proposed a number of bounds for these entropies. In addition, we have also discussed the entropy of product graphs, such as Cartesian, Kronecker, Lexicographic, Strong, and Corona products. The change in entropy can also be utilized in the analysis of growing network models (Corona graphs), useful in generating complex networks. …

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Domain Invariant Structure Extraction (DISE) google
In this paper we tackle the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation for the task of semantic segmentation, where we attempt to transfer the knowledge learned upon synthetic datasets with ground-truth labels to real-world images without any annotation. With the hypothesis that the structural content of images is the most informative and decisive factor to semantic segmentation and can be readily shared across domains, we propose a Domain Invariant Structure Extraction (DISE) framework to disentangle images into domain-invariant structure and domain-specific texture representations, which can further realize image-translation across domains and enable label transfer to improve segmentation performance. Extensive experiments verify the effectiveness of our proposed DISE model and demonstrate its superiority over several state-of-the-art approaches. …

AliGraph google
An increasing number of machine learning tasks require dealing with large graph datasets, which capture rich and complex relationship among potentially billions of elements. Graph Neural Network (GNN) becomes an effective way to address the graph learning problem by converting the graph data into a low dimensional space while keeping both the structural and property information to the maximum extent and constructing a neural network for training and referencing. However, it is challenging to provide an efficient graph storage and computation capabilities to facilitate GNN training and enable development of new GNN algorithms. In this paper, we present a comprehensive graph neural network system, namely AliGraph, which consists of distributed graph storage, optimized sampling operators and runtime to efficiently support not only existing popular GNNs but also a series of in-house developed ones for different scenarios. The system is currently deployed at Alibaba to support a variety of business scenarios, including product recommendation and personalized search at Alibaba’s E-Commerce platform. By conducting extensive experiments on a real-world dataset with 492.90 million vertices, 6.82 billion edges and rich attributes, AliGraph performs an order of magnitude faster in terms of graph building (5 minutes vs hours reported from the state-of-the-art PowerGraph platform). At training, AliGraph runs 40%-50% faster with the novel caching strategy and demonstrates around 12 times speed up with the improved runtime. In addition, our in-house developed GNN models all showcase their statistically significant superiorities in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency (e.g., 4.12%-17.19% lift by F1 scores). …

m-TSNE google
Multivariate time series (MTS) have become increasingly common in healthcare domains where human vital signs and laboratory results are collected for predictive diagnosis. Recently, there have been increasing efforts to visualize healthcare MTS data based on star charts or parallel coordinates. However, such techniques might not be ideal for visualizing a large MTS dataset, since it is difficult to obtain insights or interpretations due to the inherent high dimensionality of MTS. In this paper, we propose ‘m-TSNE’: a simple and novel framework to visualize high-dimensional MTS data by projecting them into a low-dimensional (2-D or 3-D) space while capturing the underlying data properties. Our framework is easy to use and provides interpretable insights for healthcare professionals to understand MTS data. We evaluate our visualization framework on two real-world datasets and demonstrate that the results of our m-TSNE show patterns that are easy to understand while the other methods’ visualization may have limitations in interpretability. …

Generalized Four Moment Theorem (G4MT) google
The universality for the local spiked eigenvalues is a powerful tool to deal with the problems of the asymptotic law for the bulks of spiked eigenvalues of high-dimensional generalized Fisher matrices. In this paper, we focus on a more generalized spiked Fisher matrix, where $\Sigma_1\Sigma_2^{-1}$ is free of the restriction of diagonal independence, and both of the spiked eigenvalues and the population 4th moments are not necessary required to be bounded. By reducing the matching four moments constraint to a tail probability, we propose a Generalized Four Moment Theorem (G4MT) for the bulks of spiked eigenvalues of high-dimensional generalized Fisher matrices, which shows that the limiting distribution of the spiked eigenvalues of a generalized spiked Fisher matrix is independent of the actual distributions of the samples provided to satisfy the our relaxed assumptions. Furthermore, as an illustration, we also apply the G4MT to the Central Limit Theorem for the spiked eigenvalues of generalized spiked Fisher matrix, which removes the strict condition of the diagonal block independence given in Wang and Yao (2017) and extends their result to a wider usage without the requirements of the bounded 4th moments and the diagonal block independent structure, meeting the actual cases better. …

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Intra-Ensemble google
Improving model performance is always the key problem in machine learning including deep learning. However, stand-alone neural networks always suffer from marginal effect when stacking more layers. At the same time, ensemble is a useful technique to further enhance model performance. Nevertheless, training several independent stand-alone deep neural networks costs multiple resources. In this work, we propose Intra-Ensemble, an end-to-end strategy with stochastic training operations to train several sub-networks simultaneously within one neural network. Additional parameter size is marginal since the majority of parameters are mutually shared. Meanwhile, stochastic training increases the diversity of sub-networks with weight sharing, which significantly enhances intra-ensemble performance. Extensive experiments prove the applicability of intra-ensemble on various kinds of datasets and network architectures. Our models achieve comparable results with the state-of-the-art architectures on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100. …

Solver-Quality google
Algorithmic assurances from advanced autonomous systems assist human users in understanding, trusting, and using such systems appropriately. Designing these systems with the capacity of assessing their own capabilities is one approach to creating an algorithmic assurance. The idea of `machine self-confidence’ is introduced for autonomous systems. Using a factorization based framework for self-confidence assessment, one component of self-confidence, called `solver-quality’, is discussed in the context of Markov decision processes for autonomous systems. Markov decision processes underlie much of the theory of reinforcement learning, and are commonly used for planning and decision making under uncertainty in robotics and autonomous systems. A `solver quality’ metric is formally defined in the context of decision making algorithms based on Markov decision processes. A method for assessing solver quality is then derived, drawing inspiration from empirical hardness models. Finally, numerical experiments for an unmanned autonomous vehicle navigation problem under different solver, parameter, and environment conditions indicate that the self-confidence metric exhibits the desired properties. Discussion of results, and avenues for future investigation are included. …

Rafiki google
Big data analytics is gaining massive momentum in the last few years. Applying machine learning models to big data has become an implicit requirement or an expectation for most analysis tasks, especially on high-stakes applications.Typical applications include sentiment analysis against reviews for analyzing on-line products, image classification in food logging applications for monitoring user’s daily intake and stock movement prediction. Extending traditional database systems to support the above analysis is intriguing but challenging. First, it is almost impossible to implement all machine learning models in the database engines. Second, expertise knowledge is required to optimize the training and inference procedures in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, which imposes heavy burden on the system users. In this paper, we develop and present a system, called Rafiki, to provide the training and inference service of machine learning models, and facilitate complex analytics on top of cloud platforms. Rafiki provides distributed hyper-parameter tuning for the training service, and online ensemble modeling for the inference service which trades off between latency and accuracy. Experimental results confirm the efficiency, effectiveness, scalability and usability of Rafiki. …

Noise2Void (N2V) google
The field of image denoising is currently dominated by discriminative deep learning methods that are trained on pairs of noisy input and clean target images. Recently it has been shown that such methods can also be trained without clean targets. Instead, independent pairs of noisy images can be used, in an approach known as Noise2Noise (N2N). Here, we introduce Noise2Void (N2V), a training scheme that takes this idea one step further. It does not require noisy image pairs, nor clean target images. Consequently, N2V allows us to train directly on the body of data to be denoised and can therefore be applied when other methods cannot. Especially interesting is the application to biomedical image data, where the acquisition of training targets, clean or noisy, is frequently not possible. We compare the performance of N2V to approaches that have either clean target images and/or noisy image pairs available. Intuitively, N2V cannot be expected to outperform methods that have more information available during training. Still, we observe that the denoising performance of Noise2Void drops in moderation and compares favorably to training-free denoising methods. …

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Syntax-Directed Variational Autoencoder (SD-VAE) google
Deep generative models have been enjoying success in modeling continuous data. However it remains challenging to capture the representations for discrete structures with formal grammars and semantics, e.g., computer programs and molecular structures. How to generate both syntactically and semantically correct data still remains largely an open problem. Inspired by the theory of compiler where the syntax and semantics check is done via syntax-directed translation (SDT), we propose a novel syntax-directed variational autoencoder (SD-VAE) by introducing stochastic lazy attributes. This approach converts the offline SDT check into on-the-fly generated guidance for constraining the decoder. Comparing to the state-of-the-art methods, our approach enforces constraints on the output space so that the output will be not only syntactically valid, but also semantically reasonable. We evaluate the proposed model with applications in programming language and molecules, including reconstruction and program/molecule optimization. The results demonstrate the effectiveness in incorporating syntactic and semantic constraints in discrete generative models, which is significantly better than current state-of-the-art approaches. …

Intel nGraph google
The Deep Learning (DL) community sees many novel topologies published each year. Achieving high performance on each new topology remains challenging, as each requires some level of manual effort. This issue is compounded by the proliferation of frameworks and hardware platforms. The current approach, which we call ‘direct optimization’, requires deep changes within each framework to improve the training performance for each hardware backend (CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs, ASICs) and requires $\mathcal{O}(fp)$ effort; where $f$ is the number of frameworks and $p$ is the number of platforms. While optimized kernels for deep-learning primitives are provided via libraries like Intel Math Kernel Library for Deep Neural Networks (MKL-DNN), there are several compiler-inspired ways in which performance can be further optimized. Building on our experience creating neon (a fast deep learning library on GPUs), we developed Intel nGraph, a soon to be open-sourced C++ library to simplify the realization of optimized deep learning performance across frameworks and hardware platforms. Initially-supported frameworks include TensorFlow, MXNet, and Intel neon framework. Initial backends are Intel Architecture CPUs (CPU), the Intel(R) Nervana Neural Network Processor(R) (NNP), and NVIDIA GPUs. Currently supported compiler optimizations include efficient memory management and data layout abstraction. In this paper, we describe our overall architecture and its core components. In the future, we envision extending nGraph API support to a wider range of frameworks, hardware (including FPGAs and ASICs), and compiler optimizations (training versus inference optimizations, multi-node and multi-device scaling via efficient sub-graph partitioning, and HW-specific compounding of operations). …

Harmonic Adversarial Attack Method (HAAM) google
Adversarial attacks find perturbations that can fool models into misclassifying images. Previous works had successes in generating noisy/edge-rich adversarial perturbations, at the cost of degradation of image quality. Such perturbations, even when they are small in scale, are usually easily spottable by human vision. In contrast, we propose Harmonic Adversarial Attack Methods (HAAM), that generates edge-free perturbations by using harmonic functions. The property of edge-free guarantees that the generated adversarial images can still preserve visual quality, even when perturbations are of large magnitudes. Experiments also show that adversaries generated by HAAM often have higher rates of success when transferring between models. In addition, we find harmonic perturbations can simulate natural phenomena like natural lighting and shadows. It would then be possible to help find corner cases for given models, as a first step to improving them. …

Non-Markovian Monte Carlo (NMMC) google
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) has been the de facto technique for sampling and inference of large graphs such as online social networks. At the heart of MCMC lies the ability to construct an ergodic Markov chain that attains any given stationary distribution $\boldsymbol{\pi}$, often in the form of random walks or crawling agents on the graph. Most of the works around MCMC, however, presume that the graph is undirected or has reciprocal edges, and become inapplicable when the graph is directed and non-reciprocal. Here we develop a similar framework for directed graphs, which we call Non-Markovian Monte Carlo (NMMC), by establishing a mapping to convert $\boldsymbol{\pi}$ into the quasi-stationary distribution of a carefully constructed transient Markov chain on an extended state space. As applications, we demonstrate how to achieve any given distribution $\boldsymbol{\pi}$ on a directed graph and estimate the eigenvector centrality using a set of non-Markovian, history-dependent random walks on the same graph in a distributed manner. We also provide numerical results on various real-world directed graphs to confirm our theoretical findings, and present several practical enhancements to make our NMMC method ready for practical use in most directed graphs. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed NMMC framework for directed graphs is the first of its kind, unlocking all the limitations set by the standard MCMC methods for undirected graphs. …

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One-Class Generative Adversarial Network (OCGAN) google
We present a novel model called OCGAN for the classical problem of one-class novelty detection, where, given a set of examples from a particular class, the goal is to determine if a query example is from the same class. Our solution is based on learning latent representations of in-class examples using a denoising auto-encoder network. The key contribution of our work is our proposal to explicitly constrain the latent space to exclusively represent the given class. In order to accomplish this goal, firstly, we force the latent space to have bounded support by introducing a tanh activation in the encoder’s output layer. Secondly, using a discriminator in the latent space that is trained adversarially, we ensure that encoded representations of in-class examples resemble uniform random samples drawn from the same bounded space. Thirdly, using a second adversarial discriminator in the input space, we ensure all randomly drawn latent samples generate examples that look real. Finally, we introduce a gradient-descent based sampling technique that explores points in the latent space that generate potential out-of-class examples, which are fed back to the network to further train it to generate in-class examples from those points. The effectiveness of the proposed method is measured across four publicly available datasets using two one-class novelty detection protocols where we achieve state-of-the-art results. …

Matching Sparsifier google
In this paper, we present a construction of a `matching sparsifier’, that is, a sparse subgraph of the given graph that preserves large matchings approximately and is robust to modifications of the graph. We use this matching sparsifier to obtain several new algorithmic results for the maximum matching problem: * An almost $(3/2)$-approximation one-way communication protocol for the maximum matching problem, significantly simplifying the $(3/2)$-approximation protocol of Goel, Kapralov, and Khanna (SODA 2012) and extending it from bipartite graphs to general graphs. * An almost $(3/2)$-approximation algorithm for the stochastic matching problem, improving upon and significantly simplifying the previous $1.999$-approximation algorithm of Assadi, Khanna, and Li (EC 2017). * An almost $(3/2)$-approximation algorithm for the fault-tolerant matching problem, which, to our knowledge, is the first non-trivial algorithm for this problem. Our matching sparsifier is obtained by proving new properties of the edge-degree constrained subgraph (EDCS) of Bernstein and Stein (ICALP 2015; SODA 2016)—designed in the context of maintaining matchings in dynamic graphs—that identifies EDCS as an excellent choice for a matching sparsifier. This leads to surprisingly simple and non-technical proofs of the above results in a unified way. Along the way, we also provide a much simpler proof of the fact that an EDCS is guaranteed to contain a large matching, which may be of independent interest. …

MetaOptNet google
Many meta-learning approaches for few-shot learning rely on simple base learners such as nearest-neighbor classifiers. However, even in the few-shot regime, discriminatively trained linear predictors can offer better generalization. We propose to use these predictors as base learners to learn representations for few-shot learning and show they offer better tradeoffs between feature size and performance across a range of few-shot recognition benchmarks. Our objective is to learn feature embeddings that generalize well under a linear classification rule for novel categories. To efficiently solve the objective, we exploit two properties of linear classifiers: implicit differentiation of the optimality conditions of the convex problem and the dual formulation of the optimization problem. This allows us to use high-dimensional embeddings with improved generalization at a modest increase in computational overhead. Our approach, named MetaOptNet, achieves state-of-the-art performance on miniImageNet, tieredImageNet, CIFAR-FS, and FC100 few-shot learning benchmarks. …

Data Understanding google
In the field of machine learning, data understanding is the practice of getting initial insights in unknown datasets. Such knowledge-intensive tasks require a lot of documentation, which is necessary for data scientists to grasp the meaning of the data. Usually, documentation is separate from the data in various external documents, diagrams, spreadsheets and tools which causes considerable look up overhead. Moreover, other supporting applications are not able to consume and utilize such unstructured data. That is why we propose a methodology that uses a single semantic model that interlinks data with its documentation. Hence, data scientists are able to directly look up the connected information about the data by simply following links. Equally, they can browse the documentation which always refers to the data. Furthermore, the model can be used by other approaches providing additional support, like searching, comparing, integrating or visualizing data. To showcase our approach we also demonstrate an early prototype. …