**Resource-aware Elastic Swap Random Forest for Evolving Data Streams**

Continual learning based on data stream mining deals with ubiquitous sources of Big Data arriving at high-velocity and in real-time. Adaptive Random Forest ({\em ARF}) is a popular ensemble method used for continual learning due to its simplicity in combining adaptive leveraging bagging with fast random Hoeffding trees. While the default ARF size provides competitive accuracy, it is usually over-provisioned resulting in the use of additional classifiers that only contribute to increasing CPU and memory consumption with marginal impact in the overall accuracy. This paper presents Elastic Swap Random Forest ({\em ESRF}), a method for reducing the number of trees in the ARF ensemble while providing similar accuracy. {\em ESRF} extends {\em ARF} with two orthogonal components: 1) a swap component that splits learners into two sets based on their accuracy (only classifiers with the highest accuracy are used to make predictions); and 2) an elastic component for dynamically increasing or decreasing the number of classifiers in the ensemble. The experimental evaluation of {\em ESRF} and comparison with the original {\em ARF} shows how the two new components contribute to reducing the number of classifiers up to one third while providing almost the same accuracy, resulting in speed-ups in terms of per-sample execution time close to 3x.

**Online Normalization for Training Neural Networks**

Online Normalization is a new technique for normalizing the hidden activations of a neural network. Like Batch Normalization, it normalizes the sample dimension. While Online Normalization does not use batches, it is as accurate as Batch Normalization. We resolve a theoretical limitation of Batch Normalization by introducing an unbiased technique for computing the gradient of normalized activations. Online Normalization works with automatic differentiation by adding statistical normalization as a primitive. This technique can be used in cases not covered by some other normalizers, such as recurrent networks, fully connected networks, and networks with activation memory requirements prohibitive for batching. We show its applications to image classification, image segmentation, and language modeling. We present formal proofs and experimental results on ImageNet, CIFAR, and PTB datasets.

**Learning What and Where to Transfer**

As the application of deep learning has expanded to real-world problems with insufficient volume of training data, transfer learning recently has gained much attention as means of improving the performance in such small-data regime. However, when existing methods are applied between heterogeneous architectures and tasks, it becomes more important to manage their detailed configurations and often requires exhaustive tuning on them for the desired performance. To address the issue, we propose a novel transfer learning approach based on meta-learning that can automatically learn what knowledge to transfer from the source network to where in the target network. Given source and target networks, we propose an efficient training scheme to learn meta-networks that decide (a) which pairs of layers between the source and target networks should be matched for knowledge transfer and (b) which features and how much knowledge from each feature should be transferred. We validate our meta-transfer approach against recent transfer learning methods on various datasets and network architectures, on which our automated scheme significantly outperforms the prior baselines that find ‘what and where to transfer’ in a hand-crafted manner.

**Passage Ranking with Weak Supervsion**

In this paper, we propose a \textit{weak supervision} framework for neural ranking tasks based on the data programming paradigm \citep{Ratner2016}, which enables us to leverage multiple weak supervision signals from different sources. Empirically, we consider two sources of weak supervision signals, unsupervised ranking functions and semantic feature similarities. We train a BERT-based passage-ranking model (which achieves new state-of-the-art performances on two benchmark datasets with full supervision) in our weak supervision framework. Without using ground-truth training labels, BERT-PR models outperform BM25 baseline by a large margin on all three datasets and even beat the previous state-of-the-art results with full supervision on two of the datasets.

**Adaptivity and Optimality: A Universal Algorithm for Online Convex Optimization**

In this paper, we study adaptive online convex optimization, and aim to design a universal algorithm that achieves optimal regret bounds for multiple common types of loss functions. Existing universal methods are limited in the sense that they are optimal for only a subclass of loss functions. To address this limitation, we propose a novel online method, namely Maler, which enjoys the optimal

,

and

regret bounds for general convex, exponentially concave, and strongly convex functions respectively. The essential idea is to run multiple types of learning algorithms with different learning rates in parallel, and utilize a meta algorithm to track the best one on the fly. Empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

**Rethinking the Usage of Batch Normalization and Dropout in the Training of Deep Neural Networks**

In this work, we propose a novel technique to boost training efficiency of a neural network. Our work is based on an excellent idea that whitening the inputs of neural networks can achieve a fast convergence speed. Given the well-known fact that independent components must be whitened, we introduce a novel Independent-Component (IC) layer before each weight layer, whose inputs would be made more independent. However, determining independent components is a computationally intensive task. To overcome this challenge, we propose to implement an IC layer by combining two popular techniques, Batch Normalization and Dropout, in a new manner that we can rigorously prove that Dropout can quadratically reduce the mutual information and linearly reduce the correlation between any pair of neurons with respect to the dropout layer parameter

. As demonstrated experimentally, the IC layer consistently outperforms the baseline approaches with more stable training process, faster convergence speed and better convergence limit on CIFAR10/100 and ILSVRC2012 datasets. The implementation of our IC layer makes us rethink the common practices in the design of neural networks. For example, we should not place Batch Normalization before ReLU since the non-negative responses of ReLU will make the weight layer updated in a suboptimal way, and we can achieve better performance by combining Batch Normalization and Dropout together as an IC layer.

**Orthogonal Deep Neural Networks**

In this paper, we introduce the algorithms of Orthogonal Deep Neural Networks (OrthDNNs) to connect with recent interest of spectrally regularized deep learning methods. OrthDNNs are theoretically motivated by generalization analysis of modern DNNs, with the aim to find solution properties of network weights that guarantee better generalization. To this end, we first prove that DNNs are of local isometry on data distributions of practical interest; by using a new covering of the sample space and introducing the local isometry property of DNNs into generalization analysis, we establish a new generalization error bound that is both scale- and range-sensitive to singular value spectrum of each of networks’ weight matrices. We prove that the optimal bound w.r.t. the degree of isometry is attained when each weight matrix has a spectrum of equal singular values, among which orthogonal weight matrix or a non-square one with orthonormal rows or columns is the most straightforward choice, suggesting the algorithms of OrthDNNs. We present both algorithms of strict and approximate OrthDNNs, and for the later ones we propose a simple yet effective algorithm called Singular Value Bounding (SVB), which performs as well as strict OrthDNNs, but at a much lower computational cost. We also propose Bounded Batch Normalization (BBN) to make compatible use of batch normalization with OrthDNNs. We conduct extensive comparative studies by using modern architectures on benchmark image classification. Experiments show the efficacy of OrthDNNs.

**BERT Rediscovers the Classical NLP Pipeline**

Pre-trained text encoders have rapidly advanced the state of the art on many NLP tasks. We focus on one such model, BERT, and aim to quantify where linguistic information is captured within the network. We find that the model represents the steps of the traditional NLP pipeline in an interpretable and localizable way, and that the regions responsible for each step appear in the expected sequence: POS tagging, parsing, NER, semantic roles, then coreference. Qualitative analysis reveals that the model can and often does adjust this pipeline dynamically, revising lower-level decisions on the basis of disambiguating information from higher-level representations.

**GhostLink: Latent Network Inference for Influence-aware Recommendation**

Social influence plays a vital role in shaping a user’s behavior in online communities dealing with items of fine taste like movies, food, and beer. For online recommendation, this implies that users’ preferences and ratings are influenced due to other individuals. Given only time-stamped reviews of users, can we find out who-influences-whom, and characteristics of the underlying influence network? Can we use this network to improve recommendation? While prior works in social-aware recommendation have leveraged social interaction by considering the observed social network of users, many communities like Amazon, Beeradvocate, and Ratebeer do not have explicit user-user links. Therefore, we propose GhostLink, an unsupervised probabilistic graphical model, to automatically learn the latent influence network underlying a review community — given only the temporal traces (timestamps) of users’ posts and their content. Based on extensive experiments with four real-world datasets with 13 million reviews, we show that GhostLink improves item recommendation by around 23% over state-of-the-art methods that do not consider this influence. As additional use-cases, we show that GhostLink can be used to differentiate between users’ latent preferences and influenced ones, as well as to detect influential users based on the learned influence graph.

**A New Estimation Algorithm for Box-Cox Transformation Cure Rate Model and Comparison With EM Algorithm**

In this paper, we develop a new estimation procedure based on the non-linear conjugate gradient (NCG) algorithm for the Box-Cox transformation cure rate model. We compare the performance of the NCG algorithm with the well-known expectation maximization (EM) algorithm through a simulation study and show the advantages of the NCG algorithm over the EM algorithm. In particular, we show that the NCG algorithm allows simultaneous maximization of all model parameters when the likelihood surface is flat with respect to a Box-Cox model parameter. This is a big advantage over the EM algorithm, where a profile likelihood approach has been proposed in the literature that may not provide satisfactory results. We finally use the NCG algorithm to analyze a well-known melanoma data and show that it results in a better fit.

**Automatic Model Selection for Neural Networks**

Neural networks and deep learning are changing the way that artificial intelligence is being done. Efficiently choosing a suitable network architecture and fine-tune its hyper-parameters for a specific dataset is a time-consuming task given the staggering number of possible alternatives. In this paper, we address the problem of model selection by means of a fully automated framework for efficiently selecting a neural network model for a given task: classification or regression. The algorithm, named Automatic Model Selection, is a modified micro-genetic algorithm that automatically and efficiently finds the most suitable neural network model for a given dataset. The main contributions of this method are a simple list based encoding for neural networks as genotypes in an evolutionary algorithm, new crossover, and mutation operators, the introduction of a fitness function that considers both, the accuracy of the model and its complexity and a method to measure the similarity between two neural networks. AMS is evaluated on two different datasets. By comparing some models obtained with AMS to state-of-the-art models for each dataset we show that AMS can automatically find efficient neural network models. Furthermore, AMS is computationally efficient and can make use of distributed computing paradigms to further boost its performance.

**When Internet of Things Meets Blockchain: Challenges in Distributed Consensus**

Blockchain has been regarded as a promising technology for Internet of Things (IoT), since it provides significant solutions for decentralized network which can address trust and security concerns, high maintenance cost problem, etc. The decentralization provided by blockchain can be largely attributed to the use of consensus mechanism, which enables peer-to-peer trading in a distributed manner without the involvement of any third party. This article starts from introducing the basic concept of blockchain and illustrating why consensus mechanism plays an indispensable role in a blockchain enabled IoT system. Then, we discuss the main ideas of two famous consensus mechanisms including Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS), and list their limitations in IoT. Next, two mainstream Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) based consensus mechanisms, i.e., the Tangle and Hashgraph, are reviewed to show why DAG consensus is more suitable for IoT system than PoW and PoS. Potential issues and challenges of DAG based consensus mechanism to be addressed in the future are discussed in the last.

**Ignorance-Aware Approaches and Algorithms for Prototype Selection in Machine Learning**

Operating with ignorance is an important concern of the Machine Learning research, especially when the objective is to discover knowledge from the imperfect data. Data mining (driven by appropriate knowledge discovery tools) is about processing available (observed, known and understood) samples of data aiming to build a model (e.g., a classifier) to handle data samples, which are not yet observed, known or understood. These tools traditionally take samples of the available data (known facts) as an input for learning. We want to challenge the indispensability of this approach and we suggest considering the things the other way around. What if the task would be as follows: how to learn a model based on our ignorance, i.e. by processing the shape of ‘voids’ within the available data space? Can we improve traditional classification by modeling also the ignorance? In this paper, we provide some algorithms for the discovery and visualizing of the ignorance zones in two-dimensional data spaces and design two ignorance-aware smart prototype selection techniques (incremental and adversarial) to improve the performance of the nearest neighbor classifiers. We present experiments with artificial and real datasets to test the concept of the usefulness of ignorance discovery in machine learning.

**Process Mining for Python (PM4Py): Bridging the Gap Between Process- and Data Science**

Process mining, i.e., a sub-field of data science focusing on the analysis of event data generated during the execution of (business) processes, has seen a tremendous change over the past two decades. Starting off in the early 2000’s, with limited to no tool support, nowadays, several software tools, i.e., both open-source, e.g., ProM and Apromore, and commercial, e.g., Disco, Celonis, ProcessGold, etc., exist. The commercial process mining tools provide limited support for implementing custom algorithms. Moreover, both commercial and open-source process mining tools are often only accessible through a graphical user interface, which hampers their usage in large-scale experimental settings. Initiatives such as RapidProM provide process mining support in the scientific workflow-based data science suite RapidMiner. However, these offer limited to no support for algorithmic customization. In the light of the aforementioned, in this paper, we present a novel process mining library, i.e. Process Mining for Python (PM4Py) that aims to bridge this gap, providing integration with state-of-the-art data science libraries, e.g., pandas, numpy, scipy and scikit-learn. We provide a global overview of the architecture and functionality of PM4Py, accompanied by some representative examples of its usage.

**TSXplain: Demystification of DNN Decisions for Time-Series using Natural Language and Statistical Features**

Neural networks (NN) are considered as black-boxes due to the lack of explainability and transparency of their decisions. This significantly hampers their deployment in environments where explainability is essential along with the accuracy of the system. Recently, significant efforts have been made for the interpretability of these deep networks with the aim to open up the black-box. However, most of these approaches are specifically developed for visual modalities. In addition, the interpretations provided by these systems require expert knowledge and understanding for intelligibility. This indicates a vital gap between the explainability provided by the systems and the novice user. To bridge this gap, we present a novel framework i.e. Time-Series eXplanation (TSXplain) system which produces a natural language based explanation of the decision taken by a NN. It uses the extracted statistical features to describe the decision of a NN, merging the deep learning world with that of statistics. The two-level explanation provides ample description of the decision made by the network to aid an expert as well as a novice user alike. Our survey and reliability assessment test confirm that the generated explanations are meaningful and correct. We believe that generating natural language based descriptions of the network’s decisions is a big step towards opening up the black-box.

**Differentiable Linearized ADMM**

Recently, a number of learning-based optimization methods that combine data-driven architectures with the classical optimization algorithms have been proposed and explored, showing superior empirical performance in solving various ill-posed inverse problems, but there is still a scarcity of rigorous analysis about the convergence behaviors of learning-based optimization. In particular, most existing analyses are specific to unconstrained problems but cannot apply to the more general cases where some variables of interest are subject to certain constraints. In this paper, we propose Differentiable Linearized ADMM (D-LADMM) for solving the problems with linear constraints. Specifically, D-LADMM is a K-layer LADMM inspired deep neural network, which is obtained by firstly introducing some learnable weights in the classical Linearized ADMM algorithm and then generalizing the proximal operator to some learnable activation function. Notably, we rigorously prove that there exist a set of learnable parameters for D-LADMM to generate globally converged solutions, and we show that those desired parameters can be attained by training D-LADMM in a proper way. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to provide the convergence analysis for the learning-based optimization method on constrained problems.

**Robust change point tests by bounded transformations**

Classical moment based change point tests like the cusum test are very powerful in case of Gaussian time series with one change point but behave poorly under heavy tailed distributions and corrupted data. A new class of robust change point tests based on cusum statistics of robustly transformed observations is proposed. This framework is quite flexible, depending on the used transformation one can detect for instance changes in the mean, scale or dependence of a possibly multivariate time series. Simulations indicate that this approach is very powerful in detecting changes in the marginal variance of ARCH processes and outperforms existing proposals for detecting structural breaks in the dependence structure of heavy tailed multivariate time series.

**Neural Query Language: A Knowledge Base Query Language for Tensorflow**

Large knowledge bases (KBs) are useful for many AI tasks, but are difficult to integrate into modern gradient-based learning systems. Here we describe a framework for accessing soft symbolic database using only differentiable operators. For example, this framework makes it easy to conveniently write neural models that adjust confidences associated with facts in a soft KB; incorporate prior knowledge in the form of hand-coded KB access rules; or learn to instantiate query templates using information extracted from text. NQL can work well with KBs with millions of tuples and hundreds of thousands of entities on a single GPU.

**GMNN: Graph Markov Neural Networks**

This paper studies semi-supervised object classification in relational data, which is a fundamental problem in relational data modeling. The problem has been extensively studied in the literature of both statistical relational learning (e.g. relational Markov networks) and graph neural networks (e.g. graph convolutional networks). Statistical relational learning methods can effectively model the dependency of object labels through conditional random fields for collective classification, whereas graph neural networks learn effective object representations for classification through end-to-end training. In this paper, we propose the Graph Markov Neural Network (GMNN) that combines the advantages of both worlds. A GMNN models the joint distribution of object labels with a conditional random field, which can be effectively trained with the variational EM algorithm. In the E-step, one graph neural network learns effective object representations for approximating the posterior distributions of object labels. In the M-step, another graph neural network is used to model the local label dependency. Experiments on object classification, link classification, and unsupervised node representation learning show that GMNN achieves state-of-the-art results.

**Cluster, Classify, Regress: A General Method For Learning Discountinous Functions**

This paper presents a method for solving the supervised learning problem in which the output is highly nonlinear and discontinuous. It is proposed to solve this problem in three stages: (i) cluster the pairs of input-output data points, resulting in a label for each point; (ii) classify the data, where the corresponding label is the output; and finally (iii) perform one separate regression for each class, where the training data corresponds to the subset of the original input-output pairs which have that label according to the classifier. It has not yet been proposed to combine these 3 fundamental building blocks of machine learning in this simple and powerful fashion. This can be viewed as a form of deep learning, where any of the intermediate layers can itself be deep. The utility and robustness of the methodology is illustrated on some toy problems, including one example problem arising from simulation of plasma fusion in a tokamak.

**Representing Schema Structure with Graph Neural Networks for Text-to-SQL Parsing**

Research on parsing language to SQL has largely ignored the structure of the database (DB) schema, either because the DB was very simple, or because it was observed at both training and test time. In \spider{}, a recently-released text-to-SQL dataset, new and complex DBs are given at test time, and so the structure of the DB schema can inform the predicted SQL query. In this paper, we present an encoder-decoder semantic parser, where the structure of the DB schema is encoded with a graph neural network, and this representation is later used at both encoding and decoding time. Evaluation shows that encoding the schema structure improves our parser accuracy from 33.8% to 39.4%, dramatically above the current state of the art, which is at 19.7%.

**Output-Constrained Bayesian Neural Networks**

Bayesian neural network (BNN) priors are defined in parameter space, making it hard to encode prior knowledge expressed in function space. We formulate a prior that incorporates functional constraints about what the output can or cannot be in regions of the input space. Output-Constrained BNNs (OC-BNN) represent an interpretable approach of enforcing a range of constraints, fully consistent with the Bayesian framework and amenable to black-box inference. We demonstrate how OC-BNNs improve model robustness and prevent the prediction of infeasible outputs in two real-world applications of healthcare and robotics.

**A Human-Centered Approach to Interactive Machine Learning**

The interactive machine learning (IML) community aims to augment humans’ ability to learn and make decisions over time through the development of automated decision-making systems. This interaction represents a collaboration between multiple intelligent systems—humans and machines. A lack of appropriate consideration for the humans involved can lead to problematic system behaviour, and issues of fairness, accountability, and transparency. This work presents a human-centred thinking approach to applying IML methods. This guide is intended to be used by AI practitioners who incorporate human factors in their work. These practitioners are responsible for the health, safety, and well-being of interacting humans. An obligation of responsibility for public interaction means acting with integrity, honesty, fairness, and abiding by applicable legal statutes. With these values and principles in mind, we as a research community can better achieve the collective goal of augmenting human ability. This practical guide aims to support many of the responsible decisions necessary throughout iterative design, development, and dissemination of IML systems.

**Timescale Separation in Autonomous Optimization**

Autonomous optimization refers to the design of feedback controllers that steer a physical system to a steady state that solves a predefined, possibly constrained, optimization problem. As such, no exogenous control inputs such as setpoints or trajectories are required. Instead, these controllers are modeled after optimization algorithms that take the form of dynamical systems. The interconnection of this type of optimization dynamics with a physical system is however not guaranteed to be stable unless both dynamics act on sufficiently different timescales. In this paper, we quantify the required timescale separation and give prescriptions that can be directly used in the design of this type of feedback controllers. Using ideas from singular perturbation analysis we derive stability bounds for different feedback optimization schemes that are based on common continuous-time optimization schemes. In particular, we consider gradient descent and its variations, including projected gradient, and Newton gradient. We further give stability bounds for momentum methods and saddle-point flows interconnected with dynamical systems. Finally, we discuss how optimization algorithms like subgradient and accelerated gradient descent, while well-behaved in offline settings, are unsuitable for autonomous optimization due to their general lack of robustness.

**Which principal components are most sensitive to distributional changes?**

PCA is often used in anomaly detection and statistical process control tasks. For bivariate data, we prove that the minor projection (the least varying projection) of the PCA-rotated data is the most sensitive to distributional changes, where sensitivity is defined by the Hellinger distance between distributions before and after a change. In particular, this is almost always the case if only one parameter of the bivariate normal distribution changes, i.e., the change is sparse. Simulations indicate that the minor projections are the most sensitive for a large range of changes and pre-change settings in higher dimensions as well. This motivates using the minor projections for detecting sparse distributional changes in high-dimensional data.