If you did not already know

Affine Forward Variance (AFV) google
We introduce the class of affine forward variance (AFV) models of which both the conventional Heston model and the rough Heston model are special cases. We show that AFV models can be characterized by the affine form of their cumulant generating function, which can be obtained as solution of a convolution Riccati equation. We further introduce the class of affine forward order flow intensity (AFI) models, which are structurally similar to AFV models, but driven by jump processes, and which include Hawkes-type models. We show that the cumulant generating function of an AFI model satisfies a generalized convolution Riccati equation and that a high-frequency limit of AFI models converges in distribution to the AFV model. …

Jumping Knowledge Network (JKN) google
Recent deep learning approaches for representation learning on graphs follow a neighborhood aggregation procedure. We analyze some important properties of these models, and propose a strategy to overcome those. In particular, the range of ‘neighboring’ nodes that a node’s representation draws from strongly depends on the graph structure, analogous to the spread of a random walk. To adapt to local neighborhood properties and tasks, we explore an architecture — jumping knowledge (JK) networks — that flexibly leverages, for each node, different neighborhood ranges to enable better structure-aware representation. In a number of experiments on social, bioinformatics and citation networks, we demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, combining the JK framework with models like Graph Convolutional Networks, GraphSAGE and Graph Attention Networks consistently improves those models’ performance. …

Word Embedding Attention Network (WEAN) google
Most recent approaches use the sequence-to-sequence model for paraphrase generation. The existing sequence-to-sequence model tends to memorize the words and the patterns in the training dataset instead of learning the meaning of the words. Therefore, the generated sentences are often grammatically correct but semantically improper. In this work, we introduce a novel model based on the encoder-decoder framework, called Word Embedding Attention Network (WEAN). Our proposed model generates the words by querying distributed word representations (i.e. neural word embeddings), hoping to capturing the meaning of the according words. Following previous work, we evaluate our model on two paraphrase-oriented tasks, namely text simplification and short text abstractive summarization. Experimental results show that our model outperforms the sequence-to-sequence baseline by the BLEU score of 6.3 and 5.5 on two English text simplification datasets, and the ROUGE-2 F1 score of 5.7 on a Chinese summarization dataset. Moreover, our model achieves state-of-the-art performances on these three benchmark datasets. …

Small Sample Learning (SSL) google
As a promising area in artificial intelligence, a new learning paradigm, called Small Sample Learning (SSL), has been attracting prominent research attention in the recent years. In this paper, we aim to present a survey to comprehensively introduce the current techniques proposed on this topic. Specifically, current SSL techniques can be mainly divided into two categories. The first category of SSL approaches can be called ‘concept learning’, which emphasizes learning new concepts from only few related observations. The purpose is mainly to simulate human learning behaviors like recognition, generation, imagination, synthesis and analysis. The second category is called ‘experience learning’, which usually co-exists with the large sample learning manner of conventional machine learning. This category mainly focuses on learning with insufficient samples, and can also be called small data learning in some literatures. More extensive surveys on both categories of SSL techniques are introduced and some neuroscience evidences are provided to clarify the rationality of the entire SSL regime, and the relationship with human learning process. Some discussions on the main challenges and possible future research directions along this line are also presented. …

If you did not already know

Discrete Morse Theory google
Discrete Morse theory is a tool for determining equivalences between topological spaces arising from discrete mathematical structures. This theory was developed by Robin Forman in the 1990s as a combinatorial analog to Morse theory, developed by Marston Morse in the 1920s. The original theory deals with analyzing such equivalences for general topological spaces, while discrete Morse theory provides similar methods of analysis for topological spaces endowed with additional, discrete structure. For these structures, applications of the discrete theory are often more natural, as well as simpler and more straightforward to apply. Discrete Morse theory has applications throughout many fields of pure and applied mathematics. Within pure mathematics, for example, the theory has been widely applied to problems in geometry, topology, and knot theory; and within computer science, the theory has been used to evaluate data compression algorithms and to bound the complexity of algorithms that determine whether graphs have certain properties – for example, whether all components of a graph are connected. If we wish to know whether a given property holds for a certain topological space, our question can often be reduced to the question of whether the space is equivalent to another space for which the property holds. For example, whether a simple algorithm exists for determining if a graph is connected depends on whether the structure that represents the space of not-connected graphs can be shrunken to a point. Alas, it cannot, so any algorithm for testing graph connectedness must, at least in some cases, conduct an exhaustive search. This result has real-world implications: for example, it means that if we want to test a communications system – say, immediately after a disaster – to determine whether it is still connected, there is no guaranteed way of finding the answer without testing every component individually.
http://…/Discrete_Morse_theory
http://…/Morse_theory
http://…/s48forman.pdf


Dynamic Sampling Convolutional Neural Network (DSCNN) google
We present Dynamic Sampling Convolutional Neural Networks (DSCNN), where the position-specific kernels learn from not only the current position but also multiple sampled neighbour regions. During sampling, residual learning is introduced to ease training and an attention mechanism is applied to fuse features from different samples. And the kernels are further factorized to reduce parameters. The multiple sampling strategy enlarges the effective receptive fields significantly without requiring more parameters. While DSCNNs inherit the advantages of DFN, namely avoiding feature map blurring by position-specific kernels while keeping translation invariance, it also efficiently alleviates the overfitting issue caused by much more parameters than normal CNNs. Our model is efficient and can be trained end-to-end via standard back-propagation. We demonstrate the merits of our DSCNNs on both sparse and dense prediction tasks involving object detection and flow estimation. Our results show that DSCNNs enjoy stronger recognition abilities and achieve 81.7% in VOC2012 detection dataset. Also, DSCNNs obtain much sharper responses in flow estimation on FlyingChairs dataset compared to multiple FlowNet models’ baselines. …

MOPLS-N google
Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) is very difficult for expensive functions because most current MOO methods rely on a large number of function evaluations to get an accurate solution. We address this problem with surrogate approximation and parallel computation. We develop an MOO algorithm MOPLS-N for expensive functions that combines iteratively updated surrogate approximations of the objective functions with a structure for efficiently selecting a population of $N$ points so that the expensive objectives for all points are simultaneously evaluated on $N$ processors in each iteration. MOPLS incorporates Radial Basis Function (RBF) approximation, Tabu Search and local candidate search around multiple points to strike a balance between exploration, exploitation and diversification during each algorithm iteration. Eleven test problems (with 8 to 24 decision variables and two real-world watershed problems are used to compare performance of MOPLS to ParEGO, GOMORS, Borg, MOEA/D, and NSGA-III on a limited budget of evaluations with between 1 (serial) and 64 processors. MOPLS in serial is better than all non-RBF serial methods tested. Parallel speedup of MOPLS is higher than all other parallel algorithms with 16 and 64 processors. With both algorithms on 64 processors MOPLS is at least 2 times faster than NSGA-III on the watershed problems. …

Sourcegraph google
Sourcegraph is a fast, open-source, fully-featured code search and navigation engine. …

If you did not already know

PanJoin google
In stream processing, stream join is one of the critical sources of performance bottlenecks. The sliding-window-based stream join provides a precise result but consumes considerable computational resources. The current solutions lack support for the join predicates on large windows. These algorithms and their hardware accelerators are either limited to equi-join or use a nested loop join to process all the requests. In this paper, we present a new algorithm called PanJoin which has high throughput on large windows and supports both equi-join and non-equi-join. PanJoin implements three new data structures to reduce computations during the probing phase of stream join. We also implement the most hardware-friendly data structure, called BI-Sort, on FPGA. Our evaluation shows that PanJoin outperforms several recently proposed stream join methods by more than 1000x, and it also adapts well to highly skewed data. …

Graphite google
Graphs are a fundamental abstraction for modeling relational data. However, graphs are discrete and combinatorial in nature, and learning representations suitable for machine learning tasks poses statistical and computational challenges. In this work, we propose Graphite an algorithmic framework for unsupervised learning of representations over nodes in a graph using deep latent variable generative models. Our model is based on variational autoencoders (VAE), and differs from existing VAE frameworks for data modalities such as images, speech, and text in the use of graph neural networks for parameterizing both the generative model (i.e., decoder) and inference model (i.e., encoder). The use of graph neural networks directly incorporates inductive biases due to the spatial, local structure of graphs directly in the generative model. Moreover, we draw novel connections between graph neural networks and approximate inference via kernel embeddings of distributions. We demonstrate empirically that Graphite outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for the tasks of density estimation, link prediction, and node classification on synthetic and benchmark datasets. …

Field-aware Neural Factorization Machine (FNFM) google
Recommendation systems and computing advertisements have gradually entered the field of academic research from the field of commercial applications. Click-through rate prediction is one of the core research issues because the prediction accuracy affects the user experience and the revenue of merchants and platforms. Feature engineering is very important to improve click-through rate prediction. Traditional feature engineering heavily relies on people’s experience, and is difficult to construct a feature combination that can describe the complex patterns implied in the data. This paper combines traditional feature combination methods and deep neural networks to automate feature combinations to improve the accuracy of click-through rate prediction. We propose a mechannism named ‘Field-aware Neural Factorization Machine’ (FNFM). This model can have strong second order feature interactive learning ability like Field-aware Factorization Machine, on this basis, deep neural network is used for higher-order feature combination learning. Experiments show that the model has stronger expression ability than current deep learning feature combination models like the DeepFM, DCN and NFM. …

Adaptive Weighted Super-Resolution Network (AWSRN) google
Deep learning has been successfully applied to the single-image super-resolution (SISR) task with great performance in recent years. However, most convolutional neural network based SR models require heavy computation, which limit their real-world applications. In this work, a lightweight SR network, named Adaptive Weighted Super-Resolution Network (AWSRN), is proposed for SISR to address this issue. A novel local fusion block (LFB) is designed in AWSRN for efficient residual learning, which consists of stacked adaptive weighted residual units (AWRU) and a local residual fusion unit (LRFU). Moreover, an adaptive weighted multi-scale (AWMS) module is proposed to make full use of features in reconstruction layer. AWMS consists of several different scale convolutions, and the redundancy scale branch can be removed according to the contribution of adaptive weights in AWMS for lightweight network. The experimental results on the commonly used datasets show that the proposed lightweight AWSRN achieves superior performance on x2, x3, x4, and x8 scale factors to state-of-the-art methods with similar parameters and computational overhead. Code is avaliable at: https://…/AWSRN

If you did not already know

Adversarial Network Embedding google
Learning low-dimensional representations of networks has proved effective in a variety of tasks such as node classification, link prediction and network visualization. Existing methods can effectively encode different structural properties into the representations, such as neighborhood connectivity patterns, global structural role similarities and other high-order proximities. However, except for objectives to capture network structural properties, most of them suffer from lack of additional constraints for enhancing the robustness of representations. In this paper, we aim to exploit the strengths of generative adversarial networks in capturing latent features, and investigate its contribution in learning stable and robust graph representations. Specifically, we propose an Adversarial Network Embedding (ANE) framework, which leverages the adversarial learning principle to regularize the representation learning. It consists of two components, i.e., a structure preserving component and an adversarial learning component. The former component aims to capture network structural properties, while the latter contributes to learning robust representations by matching the posterior distribution of the latent representations to given priors. As shown by the empirical results, our method is competitive with or superior to state-of-the-art approaches on benchmark network embedding tasks. …

Prototype Reminding google
Continual learning is a critical ability of continually acquiring and transferring knowledge without catastrophically forgetting previously learned knowledge. However, enabling continual learning for AI remains a long-standing challenge. In this work, we propose a novel method, Prototype Reminding, that efficiently embeds and recalls previously learnt knowledge to tackle catastrophic forgetting issue. In particular, we consider continual learning in classification tasks. For each classification task, our method learns a metric space containing a set of prototypes where embedding of the samples from the same class cluster around prototypes and class-representative prototypes are separated apart. To alleviate catastrophic forgetting, our method preserves the embedding function from the samples to the previous metric space, through our proposed prototype reminding from previous tasks. Specifically, the reminding process is implemented by replaying a small number of samples from previous tasks and correspondingly matching their embedding to their nearest class-representative prototypes. Compared with recent continual learning methods, our contributions are fourfold: first, our method achieves the best memory retention capability while adapting quickly to new tasks. Second, our method uses metric learning for classification, and does not require adding in new neurons given new object classes. Third, our method is more memory efficient since only class-representative prototypes need to be recalled. Fourth, our method suggests a promising solution for few-shot continual learning. Without tampering with the performance on initial tasks, our method learns novel concepts given a few training examples of each class in new tasks. …

Hierarchical LSTM With Adaptive Attention (hLSTMat) google
Recent progress has been made in using attention based encoder-decoder framework for image and video captioning. Most existing decoders apply the attention mechanism to every generated word including both visual words (e.g., ‘gun’ and ‘shooting’) and non-visual words (e.g. ‘the’, ‘a’). However, these non-visual words can be easily predicted using natural language model without considering visual signals or attention. Imposing attention mechanism on non-visual words could mislead and decrease the overall performance of visual captioning. Furthermore, the hierarchy of LSTMs enables more complex representation of visual data, capturing information at different scales. To address these issues, we propose a hierarchical LSTM with adaptive attention (hLSTMat) approach for image and video captioning. Specifically, the proposed framework utilizes the spatial or temporal attention for selecting specific regions or frames to predict the related words, while the adaptive attention is for deciding whether to depend on the visual information or the language context information. Also, a hierarchical LSTMs is designed to simultaneously consider both low-level visual information and high-level language context information to support the caption generation. We initially design our hLSTMat for video captioning task. Then, we further refine it and apply it to image captioning task. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework, we test our method on both video and image captioning tasks. Experimental results show that our approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance for most of the evaluation metrics on both tasks. The effect of important components is also well exploited in the ablation study. …

Dempsterian-Shaferian Belief Network google
Shenoy and Shafer {Shenoy:90} demonstrated that both for Dempster-Shafer Theory and probability theory there exists a possibility to calculate efficiently marginals of joint belief distributions (by so-called local computations) provided that the joint distribution can be decomposed (factorized) into a belief network. A number of algorithms exists for decomposition of probabilistic joint belief distribution into a bayesian (belief) network from data. For example Spirtes, Glymour and Schein{Spirtes:90b} formulated a Conjecture that a direct dependence test and a head-to-head meeting test would suffice to construe bayesian network from data in such a way that Pearl’s concept of d-separation {Geiger:90} applies. This paper is intended to transfer Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines {Spirtes:90b} approach onto the ground of the Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST). For this purpose, a frequentionistic interpretation of the DST developed in {Klopotek:93b} is exploited. A special notion of conditionality for DST is introduced and demonstrated to behave with respect to Pearl’s d-separation {Geiger:90} much the same way as conditional probability (though some differences like non-uniqueness are evident). Based on this, an algorithm analogous to that from {Spirtes:90b} is developed. The notion of a partially oriented graph (pog) is introduced and within this graph the notion of p-d-separation is defined. If direct dependence test and head-to-head meeting test are used to orient the pog then its p-d-separation is shown to be equivalent to the Pearl’s d-separation for any compatible dag. …

If you did not already know

Lifting google
The great advances of learning-based approaches in image processing and computer vision are largely based on deeply nested networks that compose linear transfer functions with suitable non-linearities. Interestingly, the most frequently used non-linearities in imaging applications (variants of the rectified linear unit) are uncommon in low dimensional approximation problems. In this paper we propose a novel non-linear transfer function, called lifting, which is motivated from a related technique in convex optimization. A lifting layer increases the dimensionality of the input, naturally yields a linear spline when combined with a fully connected layer, and therefore closes the gap between low and high dimensional approximation problems. Moreover, applying the lifting operation to the loss layer of the network allows us to handle non-convex and flat (zero-gradient) cost functions. We analyze the proposed lifting theoretically, exemplify interesting properties in synthetic experiments and demonstrate its effectiveness in deep learning approaches to image classification and denoising. …

Hu-Fu google
Recently, Deep Learning (DL), especially Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), develops rapidly and is applied to many tasks, such as image classification, face recognition, image segmentation, and human detection. Due to its superior performance, DL-based models have a wide range of application in many areas, some of which are extremely safety-critical, e.g. intelligent surveillance and autonomous driving. Due to the latency and privacy problem of cloud computing, embedded accelerators are popular in these safety-critical areas. However, the robustness of the embedded DL system might be harmed by inserting hardware/software Trojans into the accelerator and the neural network model, since the accelerator and deploy tool (or neural network model) are usually provided by third-party companies. Fortunately, inserting hardware Trojans can only achieve inflexible attack, which means that hardware Trojans can easily break down the whole system or exchange two outputs, but can’t make CNN recognize unknown pictures as targets. Though inserting software Trojans has more freedom of attack, it often requires tampering input images, which is not easy for attackers. So, in this paper, we propose a hardware-software collaborative attack framework to inject hidden neural network Trojans, which works as a back-door without requiring manipulating input images and is flexible for different scenarios. We test our attack framework for image classification and face recognition tasks, and get attack success rate of 92.6% and 100% on CIFAR10 and YouTube Faces, respectively, while keeping almost the same accuracy as the unattacked model in the normal mode. In addition, we show a specific attack scenario in which a face recognition system is attacked and gives a specific wrong answer. …

ImageNet-C google
In this paper we establish rigorous benchmarks for image classifier robustness. Our first benchmark, ImageNet-C, standardizes and expands the corruption robustness topic, while showing which classifiers are preferable in safety-critical applications. Then we propose a new dataset called ImageNet-P which enables researchers to benchmark a classifier’s robustness to common perturbations. Unlike recent robustness research, this benchmark evaluates performance on common corruptions and perturbations not worst-case adversarial perturbations. We find that there are negligible changes in relative corruption robustness from AlexNet classifiers to ResNet classifiers. Afterward we discover ways to enhance corruption and perturbation robustness. We even find that a bypassed adversarial defense provides substantial common perturbation robustness. Together our benchmarks may aid future work toward networks that robustly generalize. …

Labeled Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LLDA) google
Labeled Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LLDA) is an extension of the standard unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm, to address multi-label learning tasks. Previous work has shown it to perform in par with other state-of-the-art multi-label methods. Nonetheless, with increasing label sets sizes LLDA encounters scalability issues. In this work, we introduce Subset LLDA, a simple variant of the standard LLDA algorithm, that not only can effectively scale up to problems with hundreds of thousands of labels but also improves over the LLDA state-of-the-art. We conduct extensive experiments on eight data sets, with label sets sizes ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands, comparing our proposed algorithm with the previously proposed LLDA algorithms (Prior–LDA, Dep–LDA), as well as the state of the art in extreme multi-label classification. The results show a steady advantage of our method over the other LLDA algorithms and competitive results compared to the extreme multi-label classification algorithms. …

If you did not already know

Data Stream Mining google
Data Stream Mining is the process of extracting knowledge structures from continuous, rapid data records. A data stream is an ordered sequence of instances that in many applications of data stream mining can be read only once or a small number of times using limited computing and storage capabilities. Examples of data streams include computer network traffic, phone conversations, ATM transactions, web searches, and sensor data. Data stream mining can be considered a subfield of data mining, machine learning, and knowledge discovery. In many data stream mining applications, the goal is to predict the class or value of new instances in the data stream given some knowledge about the class membership or values of previous instances in the data stream. Machine learning techniques can be used to learn this prediction task from labeled examples in an automated fashion. Often, concepts from the field of incremental learning, a generalization of Incremental heuristic search are applied to cope with structural changes, on-line learning and real-time demands. In many applications, especially operating within non-stationary environments, the distribution underlying the instances or the rules underlying their labeling may change over time, i.e. the goal of the prediction, the class to be predicted or the target value to be predicted, may change over time. This problem is referred to as concept drift. …

GENeric Optimization (GENO) google
Although optimization is the longstanding algorithmic backbone of machine learning, new models still require the time-consuming implementation of new solvers. As a result, there are thousands of implementations of optimization algorithms for machine learning problems. A natural question is, if it is always necessary to implement a new solver, or if there is one algorithm that is sufficient for most models. Common belief suggests that such a one-algorithm-fits-all approach cannot work, because this algorithm cannot exploit model specific structure and thus cannot be efficient and robust on a wide variety of problems. Here, we challenge this common belief. We have designed and implemented the optimization framework GENO (GENeric Optimization) that combines a modeling language with a generic solver. GENO generates a solver from the declarative specification of an optimization problem class. The framework is flexible enough to encompass most of the classical machine learning problems. We show on a wide variety of classical but also some recently suggested problems that the automatically generated solvers are (1) as efficient as well-engineered specialized solvers, (2) more efficient by a decent margin than recent state-of-the-art solvers, and (3) orders of magnitude more efficient than classical modeling language plus solver approaches. …

Multivariate Subjective Fiducial Inference google
The aim of this paper is to firmly establish subjective fiducial inference as a rival to the more conventional schools of statistical inference, and to show that Fisher’s intuition concerning the importance of the fiducial argument was correct. In particular, methodology outlined in an earlier paper will be modified, enhanced and extended to deal with general inferential problems in which various parameters are unknown. Although the resulting theory is classified as being ‘subjective’, it is shown that this is simply due to the argument that all probability statements made about fixed but unknown parameters must be inherently subjective, rather than due to a need to emphasize how different the fiducial probabilities that can be derived using this theory are from objective probabilities. Some important examples of the application of this theory are presented. …

Apache OpenNLP google
Apache OpenNLP software supports the most common NLP tasks, such as tokenization, sentence segmentation, part-of-speech tagging, named entity extraction, chunking, parsing, and coreference resolution. These tasks are usually required to build more advanced text processing services. OpenNLP also includes maximum entropy and perceptron based machine learning.. …

If you did not already know

Gated Transfer Network (GTN) google
Deep neural networks have led to a series of breakthroughs in computer vision given sufficient annotated training datasets. For novel tasks with limited labeled data, the prevalent approach is to transfer the knowledge learned in the pre-trained models to the new tasks by fine-tuning. Classic model fine-tuning utilizes the fact that well trained neural networks appear to learn cross domain features. These features are treated equally during transfer learning. In this paper, we explore the impact of feature selection in model fine-tuning by introducing a transfer module, which assigns weights to features extracted from pre-trained models. The proposed transfer module proves the importance of feature selection for transferring models from source to target domains. It is shown to significantly improve upon fine-tuning results with only marginal extra computational cost. We also incorporate an auxiliary classifier as an extra regularizer to avoid over-fitting. Finally, we build a Gated Transfer Network (GTN) based on our transfer module and achieve state-of-the-art results on six different tasks. …

Probabilistic approach to neural ARchitecture SEarCh (PARSEC) google
In neural architecture search (NAS), the space of neural network architectures is automatically explored to maximize predictive accuracy for a given task. Despite the success of recent approaches, most existing methods cannot be directly applied to large scale problems because of their prohibitive computational complexity or high memory usage. In this work, we propose a Probabilistic approach to neural ARchitecture SEarCh (PARSEC) that drastically reduces memory requirements while maintaining state-of-the-art computational complexity, making it possible to directly search over more complex architectures and larger datasets. Our approach only requires as much memory as is needed to train a single architecture from our search space. This is due to a memory-efficient sampling procedure wherein we learn a probability distribution over high-performing neural network architectures. Importantly, this framework enables us to transfer the distribution of architectures learnt on smaller problems to larger ones, further reducing the computational cost. We showcase the advantages of our approach in applications to CIFAR-10 and ImageNet, where our approach outperforms methods with double its computational cost and matches the performance of methods with costs that are three orders of magnitude larger. …

String Attractors google
String attractors are combinatorial objects recently introduced to unify all known dictionary compression techniques in a single theory. …

Multi-Probe Count google
An important question that arises in the study of high dimensional vector representations learned from data is: given a set $\mathcal{D}$ of vectors and a query $q$, estimate the number of points within a specified distance threshold of $q$. We develop two estimators, LSH Count and Multi-Probe Count that use locality sensitive hashing to preprocess the data to accurately and efficiently estimate the answers to such questions via importance sampling. A key innovation is the ability to maintain a small number of hash tables via preprocessing data structures and algorithms that sample from multiple buckets in each hash table. We give bounds on the space requirements and sample complexity of our schemes, and demonstrate their effectiveness in experiments on a standard word embedding dataset. …

If you did not already know

Structured Set Matching Network (SSMN) google
Diagrams often depict complex phenomena and serve as a good test bed for visual and textual reasoning. However, understanding diagrams using natural image understanding approaches requires large training datasets of diagrams, which are very hard to obtain. Instead, this can be addressed as a matching problem either between labeled diagrams, images or both. This problem is very challenging since the absence of significant color and texture renders local cues ambiguous and requires global reasoning. We consider the problem of one-shot part labeling: labeling multiple parts of an object in a target image given only a single source image of that category. For this set-to-set matching problem, we introduce the Structured Set Matching Network (SSMN), a structured prediction model that incorporates convolutional neural networks. The SSMN is trained using global normalization to maximize local match scores between corresponding elements and a global consistency score among all matched elements, while also enforcing a matching constraint between the two sets. The SSMN significantly outperforms several strong baselines on three label transfer scenarios: diagram-to-diagram, evaluated on a new diagram dataset of over 200 categories; image-to-image, evaluated on a dataset built on top of the Pascal Part Dataset; and image-to-diagram, evaluated on transferring labels across these datasets. …

Non-Deterministic Inference Framework google
A random set is a generalisation of a random variable, i.e. a set-valued random variable. The random set theory allows a unification of other uncertainty descriptions such as interval variable, mass belief function in Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, possibility theory, and set of probability distributions. The aim of this work is to develop a non-deterministic inference framework, including theory, approximation and sampling method, that deals with the inverse problems in which uncertainty is represented using random sets. The proposed inference method yields the posterior random set based on the intersection of the prior and the measurement induced random sets. That inference method is an extension of Dempster’s rule of combination, and a generalisation of Bayesian inference as well. A direct evaluation of the posterior random set might be impractical. We approximate the posterior random set by a random discrete set whose domain is the set of samples generated using a proposed probability distribution. We use the capacity transform density function of the posterior random set for this proposed distribution. This function has a special property: it is the posterior density function yielded by Bayesian inference of the capacity transform density function of the prior random set. The samples of such proposed probability distribution can be directly obtained using the methods developed in the Bayesian inference framework. With this approximation method, the evaluation of the posterior random set becomes tractable. …

Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) google
Commonsense knowledge is paramount to enable intelligent systems. Typically, it is characterized as being implicit and ambiguous, hindering thereby the automation of its acquisition. To address these challenges, this paper presents semantically enhanced models to enable reasoning through resolving part of commonsense ambiguity. The proposed models enhance in a knowledge graph embedding (KGE) framework for knowledge base completion. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the new semantic models in commonsense reasoning.
Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) aims to find low dimensional vector representations of entities and relations so that their similarities can be quantized. Scoring functions (SFs), which are used to build a model to measure the similarity between entities based on a given relation, have developed as the crux of KGE.
AutoKGE: Searching Scoring Functions for Knowledge Graph Embedding


DeepCaps google
Capsule Network is a promising concept in deep learning, yet its true potential is not fully realized thus far, providing sub-par performance on several key benchmark datasets with complex data. Drawing intuition from the success achieved by Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) by going deeper, we introduce DeepCaps1, a deep capsule network architecture which uses a novel 3D convolution based dynamic routing algorithm. With DeepCaps, we surpass the state-of-the-art results in the capsule network domain on CIFAR10, SVHN and Fashion MNIST, while achieving a 68% reduction in the number of parameters. Further, we propose a class-independent decoder network, which strengthens the use of reconstruction loss as a regularization term. This leads to an interesting property of the decoder, which allows us to identify and control the physical attributes of the images represented by the instantiation parameters. …

If you did not already know

XNLI google
State-of-the-art natural language processing systems rely on supervision in the form of annotated data to learn competent models. These models are generally trained on data in a single language (usually English), and cannot be directly used beyond that language. Since collecting data in every language is not realistic, there has been a growing interest in cross-lingual language understanding (XLU) and low-resource cross-language transfer. In this work, we construct an evaluation set for XLU by extending the development and test sets of the Multi-Genre Natural Language Inference Corpus (MultiNLI) to 15 languages, including low-resource languages such as Swahili and Urdu. We hope that our dataset, dubbed XNLI, will catalyze research in cross-lingual sentence understanding by providing an informative standard evaluation task. In addition, we provide several baselines for multilingual sentence understanding, including two based on machine translation systems, and two that use parallel data to train aligned multilingual bag-of-words and LSTM encoders. We find that XNLI represents a practical and challenging evaluation suite, and that directly translating the test data yields the best performance among available baselines. …

Dynamically Expandable Network (DEN) google
We propose a novel deep network architecture for lifelong learning which we refer to as Dynamically Expandable Network (DEN), that can dynamically decide its network capacity as it trains on a sequence of tasks, to learn a compact overlapping knowledge sharing structure among tasks. DEN is efficiently trained in an online manner by performing selective retraining, dynamically expands network capacity upon arrival of each task with only the necessary number of units, and effectively prevents semantic drift by splitting/duplicating units and timestamping them. We validate DEN on multiple public datasets in lifelong learning scenarios on multiple public datasets, on which it not only significantly outperforms existing lifelong learning methods for deep networks, but also achieves the same level of performance as the batch model with substantially fewer number of parameters. …

Linear Model U-Tree (LMUT) google
Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has achieved impressive success in many applications. A key component of many DRL models is a neural network representing a Q function, to estimate the expected cumulative reward following a state-action pair. The Q function neural network contains a lot of implicit knowledge about the RL problems, but often remains unexamined and uninterpreted. To our knowledge, this work develops the first mimic learning framework for Q functions in DRL. We introduce Linear Model U-trees (LMUTs) to approximate neural network predictions. An LMUT is learned using a novel on-line algorithm that is well-suited for an active play setting, where the mimic learner observes an ongoing interaction between the neural net and the environment. Empirical evaluation shows that an LMUT mimics a Q function substantially better than five baseline methods. The transparent tree structure of an LMUT facilitates understanding the network’s learned knowledge by analyzing feature influence, extracting rules, and highlighting the super-pixels in image inputs. …

Watchdog AI (WAI) google
Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies could be broadly categorised into Analytics and Autonomy. Analytics focuses on algorithms offering perception, comprehension, and projection of knowledge gleaned from sensorial data. Autonomy revolves around decision making, and influencing and shaping the environment through action production. A smart autonomous system (SAS) combines analytics and autonomy to understand, learn, decide and act autonomously. To be useful, SAS must be trusted and that requires testing. Lifelong learning of a SAS compounds the testing process. In the remote chance that it is possible to fully test and certify the system pre-release, which is theoretically an undecidable problem, it is near impossible to predict the future behaviours that these systems, alone or collectively, will exhibit. While it may be feasible to severely restrict such systems\textquoteright \ learning abilities to limit the potential unpredictability of their behaviours, an undesirable consequence may be severely limiting their utility. In this paper, we propose the architecture for a watchdog AI (WAI) agent dedicated to lifelong functional testing of SAS. We further propose system specifications including a level of abstraction whereby humans shepherd a swarm of WAI agents to oversee an ecosystem made of humans and SAS. The discussion extends to the challenges, pros, and cons of the proposed concept. …

If you did not already know

Deep Fundamental Factor Models google
Deep fundamental factor models are developed to interpret and capture non-linearity, interaction effects and non-parametric shocks in financial econometrics. Uncertainty quantification provides interpretability with interval estimation, ranking of factor importances and estimation of interaction effects. Estimating factor realizations under either homoscedastic or heteroscedastic error is also available. With no hidden layers we recover a linear factor model and for one or more hidden layers, uncertainty bands for the sensitivity to each input naturally arise from the network weights. To illustrate our methodology, we construct a six-factor model of assets in the S\&P 500 index and generate information ratios that are three times greater than generalized linear regression. We show that the factor importances are materially different from the linear factor model when accounting for non-linearity. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research …

Selective Prediction google
We consider a model of selective prediction, where the prediction algorithm is given a data sequence in an online fashion and asked to predict a pre-specified statistic of the upcoming data points. The algorithm is allowed to choose when to make the prediction as well as the length of the prediction window, possibly depending on the observations so far. We prove that, even without any distributional assumption on the input data stream, a large family of statistics can be estimated to non-trivial accuracy. To give one concrete example, suppose that we are given access to an arbitrary binary sequence $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ of length $n$. Our goal is to accurately predict the average observation, and we are allowed to choose the window over which the prediction is made: for some $t < n$ and $m \le n – t$, after seeing $t$ observations we predict the average of $x_{t+1}, \ldots, x_{t+m}$. We show that the expected squared error of our prediction can be bounded by $O\left(\frac{1}{\log n}\right)$, and prove a matching lower bound. This result holds for any sequence (that is not adaptive to when the prediction is made, or the predicted value), and the expectation of the error is with respect to the randomness of the prediction algorithm. Our results apply to more general statistics of a sequence of observations, and we highlight several open directions for future work. …

Workload-Aware Auto-Parallelization Framework (WAP) google
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have emerged as successful solutions for variety of artificial intelligence applications, but their very large and deep models impose high computational requirements during training. Multi-GPU parallelization is a popular option to accelerate demanding computations in DNN training, but most state-of-the-art multi-GPU deep learning frameworks not only require users to have an in-depth understanding of the implementation of the frameworks themselves, but also apply parallelization in a straight-forward way without optimizing GPU utilization. In this work, we propose a workload-aware auto-parallelization framework (WAP) for DNN training, where the work is automatically distributed to multiple GPUs based on the workload characteristics. We evaluate WAP using TensorFlow with popular DNN benchmarks (AlexNet and VGG-16), and show competitive training throughput compared with the state-of-the-art frameworks, and also demonstrate that WAP automatically optimizes GPU assignment based on the workload’s compute requirements, thereby improving energy efficiency. …

Boosting Independent Embeddings Robustly (BIER) google
Learning similarity functions between image pairs with deep neural networks yields highly correlated activations of embeddings. In this work, we show how to improve the robustness of such embeddings by exploiting the independence within ensembles. To this end, we divide the last embedding layer of a deep network into an embedding ensemble and formulate training this ensemble as an online gradient boosting problem. Each learner receives a reweighted training sample from the previous learners. Further, we propose two loss functions which increase the diversity in our ensemble. These loss functions can be applied either for weight initialization or during training. Together, our contributions leverage large embedding sizes more effectively by significantly reducing correlation of the embedding and consequently increase retrieval accuracy of the embedding. Our method works with any differentiable loss function and does not introduce any additional parameters during test time. We evaluate our metric learning method on image retrieval tasks and show that it improves over state-of-the-art methods on the CUB 200-2011, Cars-196, Stanford Online Products, In-Shop Clothes Retrieval and VehicleID datasets. …