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Tensor Core google
The NVIDIA Volta GPU microarchitecture introduces a specialized unit, called ‘Tensor Core’ that performs one matrix-multiply-and-accumulate on 4×4 matrices per clock cycle. The NVIDIA Tesla V100 accelerator, featuring the Volta microarchitecture, provides 640 Tensor Cores with a theoretical peak performance of 125 Tflops/s in mixed precision. In this paper, we investigate current approaches to program NVIDIA Tensor Cores, their performances and the precision loss due to computation in mixed precision. Currently, NVIDIA provides three different ways of programming matrix-multiply-and-accumulate on Tensor Cores: the CUDA Warp Matrix Multiply Accumulate (WMMA) API, CUTLASS, a templated library based on WMMA, and cuBLAS GEMM. After experimenting with different approaches, we found that NVIDIA Tensor Cores can deliver up to 83 Tflops/s in mixed precision on a Tesla V100 GPU, seven and three times the performance in single and half precision respectively. A WMMA implementation of batched GEMM reaches a performance of 4 Tflops/s. While precision loss due to matrix multiplication with half precision input might be critical in many HPC applications, it can be considerably reduced at the cost of increased computation. Our results indicate that HPC applications using matrix multiplications can strongly benefit from using of NVIDIA Tensor Cores. …

Movie Intelligent Recommender Agent (MIRA) google
The human mind is still an unknown process of neuroscience in many aspects. Nevertheless, for decades the scientific community has proposed computational models that try to simulate their parts, specific applications, or their behavior in different situations. The most complete model in this line is undoubtedly the LIDA model, proposed by Stan Franklin with the aim of serving as a generic computational architecture for several applications. The present project is inspired by the LIDA model to apply it to the process of movie recommendation, the model called MIRA (Movie Intelligent Recommender Agent) presented percentages of precision similar to a traditional model when submitted to the same assay conditions. Moreover, the proposed model reinforced the precision indexes when submitted to tests with volunteers, proving once again its performance as a cognitive model, when executed with small data volumes. Considering that the proposed model achieved a similar behavior to the traditional models under conditions expected to be similar for natural systems, it can be said that MIRA reinforces the applicability of LIDA as a path to be followed for the study and generation of computational agents inspired by neural behaviors. …

Hierarchical Importance Weighted Autoencoder google
Importance weighted variational inference (Burda et al., 2015) uses multiple i.i.d. samples to have a tighter variational lower bound. We believe a joint proposal has the potential of reducing the number of redundant samples, and introduce a hierarchical structure to induce correlation. The hope is that the proposals would coordinate to make up for the error made by one another to reduce the variance of the importance estimator. Theoretically, we analyze the condition under which convergence of the estimator variance can be connected to convergence of the lower bound. Empirically, we confirm that maximization of the lower bound does implicitly minimize variance. Further analysis shows that this is a result of negative correlation induced by the proposed hierarchical meta sampling scheme, and performance of inference also improves when the number of samples increases. …

Column2Vec google
We present Column2Vec, a distributed representation of database columns based on column metadata. Our distributed representation has several applications. Using known names for groups of columns (i.e., a table name), we train a model to generate an appropriate name for columns in an unnamed table. We demonstrate the viability of our approach using schema information collected from open source applications on GitHub. …

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GraphMP google
Recent studies showed that single-machine graph processing systems can be as highly competitive as cluster-based approaches on large-scale problems. While several out-of-core graph processing systems and computation models have been proposed, the high disk I/O overhead could significantly reduce performance in many practical cases. In this paper, we propose GraphMP to tackle big graph analytics on a single machine. GraphMP achieves low disk I/O overhead with three techniques. First, we design a vertex-centric sliding window (VSW) computation model to avoid reading and writing vertices on disk. Second, we propose a selective scheduling method to skip loading and processing unnecessary edge shards on disk. Third, we use a compressed edge cache mechanism to fully utilize the available memory of a machine to reduce the amount of disk accesses for edges. Extensive evaluations have shown that GraphMP could outperform existing single-machine out-of-core systems such as GraphChi, X-Stream and GridGraph by up to 51, and can be as highly competitive as distributed graph engines like Pregel+, PowerGraph and Chaos. …

Prediction Interval google
In statistical inference, specifically predictive inference, a prediction interval is an estimate of an interval in which future observations will fall, with a certain probability, given what has already been observed. Prediction intervals are often used in regression analysis. Prediction intervals are used in both frequentist statistics and Bayesian statistics: a prediction interval bears the same relationship to a future observation that a frequentist confidence interval or Bayesian credible interval bears to an unobservable population parameter: prediction intervals predict the distribution of individual future points, whereas confidence intervals and credible intervals of parameters predict the distribution of estimates of the true population mean or other quantity of interest that cannot be observed.
Prediction Interval, the wider sister of Confidence Interval


Snapshot Ensembles google
Ensembles of neural networks are known to be much more robust and accurate than individual networks. However, training multiple deep networks for model averaging is computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose a method to obtain the seemingly contradictory goal of ensembling multiple neural networks at no additional training cost. We achieve this goal by training a single neural network, converging to several local minima along its optimization path and saving the model parameters. To obtain repeated rapid convergence, we leverage recent work on cyclic learning rate schedules. The resulting technique, which we refer to as Snapshot Ensembling, is simple, yet surprisingly effective. We show in a series of experiments that our approach is compatible with diverse network architectures and learning tasks. It consistently yields lower error rates than state-of-the-art single models at no additional training cost, and compares favorably with traditional network ensembles. On CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 our DenseNet Snapshot Ensembles obtain error rates of 3.4% and 17.4% respectively.
Snapshot Ensembles in Keras


INDIAN google
We devise a learning algorithm for possibly nonsmooth deep neural networks featuring inertia and Newtonian directional intelligence only by means of a back-propagation oracle. Our algorithm, called INDIAN, has an appealing mechanical interpretation, making the role of its two hyperparameters transparent. An elementary phase space lifting allows both for its implementation and its theoretical study under very general assumptions. We handle in particular a stochastic version of our method (which encompasses usual mini-batch approaches) for nonsmooth activation functions (such as ReLU). Our algorithm shows high efficiency and reaches state of the art on image classification problems. …

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BO-Aug google
In recent years, deep learning has achieved remarkable achievements in many fields, including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and others. Adequate training data is the key to ensure the effectiveness of the deep models. However, obtaining valid data requires a lot of time and labor resources. Data augmentation (DA) is an effective alternative approach, which can generate new labeled data based on existing data using label-preserving transformations. Although we can benefit a lot from DA, designing appropriate DA policies requires a lot of expert experience and time consumption, and the evaluation of searching the optimal policies is costly. So we raise a new question in this paper: how to achieve automated data augmentation at as low cost as possible? We propose a method named BO-Aug for automating the process by finding the optimal DA policies using the Bayesian optimization approach. Our method can find the optimal policies at a relatively low search cost, and the searched policies based on a specific dataset are transferable across different neural network architectures or even different datasets. We validate the BO-Aug on three widely used image classification datasets, including CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and SVHN. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve state-of-the-art or near advanced classification accuracy. Code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://…/BO-Aug.

GAN Augmentation google
One of the biggest issues facing the use of machine learning in medical imaging is the lack of availability of large, labelled datasets. The annotation of medical images is not only expensive and time consuming but also highly dependent on the availability of expert observers. The limited amount of training data can inhibit the performance of supervised machine learning algorithms which often need very large quantities of data on which to train to avoid overfitting. So far, much effort has been directed at extracting as much information as possible from what data is available. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) offer a novel way to unlock additional information from a dataset by generating synthetic samples with the appearance of real images. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of introducing GAN derived synthetic data to the training datasets in two brain segmentation tasks, leading to improvements in Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of between 1 and 5 percentage points under different conditions, with the strongest effects seen fewer than ten training image stacks are available. …

Deep Back-Projection Network (DBPN) google
The feed-forward architectures of recently proposed deep super-resolution networks learn representations of low-resolution inputs, and the non-linear mapping from those to high-resolution output. However, this approach does not fully address the mutual dependencies of low- and high-resolution images. We propose Deep Back-Projection Networks (DBPN), that exploit iterative up- and down-sampling layers, providing an error feedback mechanism for projection errors at each stage. We construct mutually-connected up- and down-sampling stages each of which represents different types of image degradation and high-resolution components. We show that extending this idea to allow concatenation of features across up- and down-sampling stages (Dense DBPN) allows us to reconstruct further improve super-resolution, yielding superior results and in particular establishing new state of the art results for large scaling factors such as 8x across multiple data sets. …

BlockCNN google
We present a general technique that performs both artifact removal and image compression. For artifact removal, we input a JPEG image and try to remove its compression artifacts. For compression, we input an image and process its 8 by 8 blocks in a sequence. For each block, we first try to predict its intensities based on previous blocks; then, we store a residual with respect to the input image. Our technique reuses JPEG’s legacy compression and decompression routines. Both our artifact removal and our image compression techniques use the same deep network, but with different training weights. Our technique is simple and fast and it significantly improves the performance of artifact removal and image compression. …

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Fine-Tuned Language Model (FitLaM) google
Transfer learning has revolutionized computer vision, but existing approaches in NLP still require task-specific modifications and training from scratch. We propose Fine-tuned Language Models (FitLaM), an effective transfer learning method that can be applied to any task in NLP, and introduce techniques that are key for fine-tuning a state-of-the-art language model. Our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art on five text classification tasks, reducing the error by 18-24% on the majority of datasets. We open-source our pretrained models and code to enable adoption by the community. …

MixHop google
Existing popular methods for semi-supervised learning with Graph Neural Networks (such as the Graph Convolutional Network) provably cannot learn a general class of neighborhood mixing relationships. To address this weakness, we propose a new model, MixHop, that can learn these relationships, including difference operators, by repeatedly mixing feature representations of neighbors at various distances. MixHop requires no additional memory or computational complexity, and outperforms on challenging baselines. In addition, we propose sparsity regularization that allows us to visualize how the network prioritizes neighborhood information across different graph datasets. Our analysis of the learned architectures reveals that neighborhood mixing varies per datasets. …

Equilibrated Recurrent Neural Network (ERNN) google
We propose a novel {\it Equilibrated Recurrent Neural Network} (ERNN) to combat the issues of inaccuracy and instability in conventional RNNs. Drawing upon the concept of autapse in neuroscience, we propose augmenting an RNN with a time-delayed self-feedback loop. Our sole purpose is to modify the dynamics of each internal RNN state and, at any time, enforce it to evolve close to the equilibrium point associated with the input signal at that time. We show that such self-feedback helps stabilize the hidden state transitions leading to fast convergence during training while efficiently learning discriminative latent features that result in state-of-the-art results on several benchmark datasets at test-time. We propose a novel inexact Newton method to solve fixed-point conditions given model parameters for generating the latent features at each hidden state. We prove that our inexact Newton method converges locally with linear rate (under mild conditions). We leverage this result for efficient training of ERNNs based on backpropagation. …

Soft-Guided Adaptively-Dropped Neural Network (SGAD) google
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been proven to have many redundancies. Hence, many efforts have been made to compress DNNs. However, the existing model compression methods treat all the input samples equally while ignoring the fact that the difficulties of various input samples being correctly classified are different. To address this problem, DNNs with adaptive dropping mechanism are well explored in this work. To inform the DNNs how difficult the input samples can be classified, a guideline that contains the information of input samples is introduced to improve the performance. Based on the developed guideline and adaptive dropping mechanism, an innovative soft-guided adaptively-dropped (SGAD) neural network is proposed in this paper. Compared with the 32 layers residual neural networks, the presented SGAD can reduce the FLOPs by 77% with less than 1% drop in accuracy on CIFAR-10. …

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Generative Adversarial Mapping Networks (GAMN) google
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown impressive performance in generating photo-realistic images. They fit generative models by minimizing certain distance measure between the real image distribution and the generated data distribution. Several distance measures have been used, such as Jensen-Shannon divergence, $f$-divergence, and Wasserstein distance, and choosing an appropriate distance measure is very important for training the generative network. In this paper, we choose to use the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) as the distance metric, which has several nice theoretical guarantees. In fact, generative moment matching network (GMMN) (Li, Swersky, and Zemel 2015) is such a generative model which contains only one generator network $G$ trained by directly minimizing MMD between the real and generated distributions. However, it fails to generate meaningful samples on challenging benchmark datasets, such as CIFAR-10 and LSUN. To improve on GMMN, we propose to add an extra network $F$, called mapper. $F$ maps both real data distribution and generated data distribution from the original data space to a feature representation space $\mathcal{R}$, and it is trained to maximize MMD between the two mapped distributions in $\mathcal{R}$, while the generator $G$ tries to minimize the MMD. We call the new model generative adversarial mapping networks (GAMNs). We demonstrate that the adversarial mapper $F$ can help $G$ to better capture the underlying data distribution. We also show that GAMN significantly outperforms GMMN, and is also superior to or comparable with other state-of-the-art GAN based methods on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and LSUN-Bedrooms datasets. …

Matthew Effect google
The Matthew effect, Matthew principle, or Matthew effect of accumulated advantage can be observed in many aspects of life and fields of activity. It is sometimes summarized by the adage ‘the rich get richer and the poor get poorer’. The concept is applicable to matters of fame or status, but may also be applied literally to cumulative advantage of economic capital. The term was coined by sociologist Robert K. Merton in 1968 and takes its name from the Parable of the talents or minas in the biblical Gospel of Matthew. Merton credited his collaborator and wife, sociologist Harriet Zuckerman, as co-author of the concept of the Matthew effect. …

Threading Building Blocks (TBB) google
Threading Building Blocks (TBB) is a C++ template library developed by Intel for writing software programs that take advantage of multi-core processors. The library consists of data structures and algorithms that allow a programmer to avoid some complications arising from the use of native threading packages such as POSIX threads, Windows threads, or the portable Boost Threads in which individual threads of execution are created, synchronized, and terminated manually. Instead the library abstracts access to the multiple processors by allowing the operations to be treated as “tasks”, which are allocated to individual cores dynamically by the library’s run-time engine, and by automating efficient use of the CPU cache. A TBB program creates, synchronizes and destroys graphs of dependent tasks according to algorithms, i.e. high-level parallel programming paradigms (a.k.a. Algorithmic Skeletons). Tasks are then executed respecting graph dependencies. This approach groups TBB in a family of solutions for parallel programming aiming to decouple the programming from the particulars of the underlying machine. …

StarKOSR google
Motivated by many practical applications in logistics and mobility-as-a-service, we study the top-k optimal sequenced routes (KOSR) querying on large, general graphs where the edge weights may not satisfy the triangle inequality, e.g., road network graphs with travel times as edge weights. The KOSR querying strives to find the top-k optimal routes (i.e., with the top-k minimal total costs) from a given source to a given destination, which must visit a number of vertices with specific vertex categories (e.g., gas stations, restaurants, and shopping malls) in a particular order (e.g., visiting gas stations before restaurants and then shopping malls). To efficiently find the top-k optimal sequenced routes, we propose two algorithms PruningKOSR and StarKOSR. In PruningKOSR, we define a dominance relationship between two partially-explored routes. The partially-explored routes that can be dominated by other partially-explored routes are postponed being extended, which leads to a smaller searching space and thus improves efficiency. In StarKOSR, we further improve the efficiency by extending routes in an A* manner. With the help of a judiciously designed heuristic estimation that works for general graphs, the cost of partially explored routes to the destination can be estimated such that the qualified complete routes can be found early. In addition, we demonstrate the high extensibility of the proposed algorithms by incorporating Hop Labeling, an effective label indexing technique for shortest path queries, to further improve efficiency. Extensive experiments on multiple real-world graphs demonstrate that the proposed methods significantly outperform the baseline method. Furthermore, when k=1, StarKOSR also outperforms the state-of-the-art method for the optimal sequenced route queries. …

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Gradient Boost Convolutional Autoencoder with Neural Decision Forest (GrCAN) google
Random forest and deep neural network are two schools of effective classification methods in machine learning. While the random forest is robust irrespective of the data domain, the deep neural network has advantages in handling high dimensional data. In view that a differentiable neural decision forest can be added to the neural network to fully exploit the benefits of both models, in our work, we further combine convolutional autoencoder with neural decision forest, where autoencoder has its advantages in finding the hidden representations of the input data. We develop a gradient boost module and embed it into the proposed convolutional autoencoder with neural decision forest to improve the performance. The idea of gradient boost is to learn and use the residual in the prediction. In addition, we design a structure to learn the parameters of the neural decision forest and gradient boost module at contiguous steps. The extensive experiments on several public datasets demonstrate that our proposed model achieves good efficiency and prediction performance compared with a series of baseline methods. …

Discrete Neural Process google
Many data generating processes involve latent random variables over discrete combinatorial spaces whose size grows factorially with the dataset. In these settings, existing posterior inference methods can be inaccurate and/or very slow. In this work we develop methods for efficient amortized approximate Bayesian inference over discrete combinatorial spaces, with applications to random permutations, probabilistic clustering (such as Dirichlet process mixture models) and random communities (such as stochastic block models). The approach is based on mapping distributed, symmetry-invariant representations of discrete arrangements into conditional probabilities. The resulting algorithms parallelize easily, yield iid samples from the approximate posteriors, and can easily be applied to both conjugate and non-conjugate models, as training only requires samples from the generative model. …

Confident Multiple Choice Learning (CMCL) google
Ensemble methods are arguably the most trustworthy techniques for boosting the performance of machine learning models. Popular independent ensembles (IE) relying on naive averaging/voting scheme have been of typical choice for most applications involving deep neural networks, but they do not consider advanced collaboration among ensemble models. In this paper, we propose new ensemble methods specialized for deep neural networks, called confident multiple choice learning (CMCL): it is a variant of multiple choice learning (MCL) via addressing its overconfidence issue.In particular, the proposed major components of CMCL beyond the original MCL scheme are (i) new loss, i.e., confident oracle loss, (ii) new architecture, i.e., feature sharing and (iii) new training method, i.e., stochastic labeling. We demonstrate the effect of CMCL via experiments on the image classification on CIFAR and SVHN, and the foreground-background segmentation on the iCoseg. In particular, CMCL using 5 residual networks provides 14.05% and 6.60% relative reductions in the top-1 error rates from the corresponding IE scheme for the classification task on CIFAR and SVHN, respectively. …

Diverse Paraphrase Generation (D-PAGE) google
In this paper, we investigate the diversity aspect of paraphrase generation. Prior deep learning models employ either decoding methods or add random input noise for varying outputs. We propose a simple method Diverse Paraphrase Generation (D-PAGE), which extends neural machine translation (NMT) models to support the generation of diverse paraphrases with implicit rewriting patterns. Our experimental results on two real-world benchmark datasets demonstrate that our model generates at least one order of magnitude more diverse outputs than the baselines in terms of a new evaluation metric Jeffrey’s Divergence. We have also conducted extensive experiments to understand various properties of our model with a focus on diversity. …

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Distribution Shifting Convolution (DSConv) google
We introduce a variation of the convolutional layer called DSConv (Distribution Shifting Convolution) that can be readily substituted into standard neural network architectures and achieve both lower memory usage and higher computational speed. DSConv breaks down the traditional convolution kernel into two components: Variable Quantized Kernel (VQK), and Distribution Shifts. Lower memory usage and higher speeds are achieved by storing only integer values in the VQK, whilst preserving the same output as the original convolution by applying both kernel and channel based distribution shifts. We test DSConv in ImageNet on ResNet50 and 34, as well as AlexNet and MobileNet. We achieve a reduction in memory usage of up to 14x in the convolutional kernels and speed up operations of up to 10x by substituting floating point operations to integer operations. Furthermore, unlike other quantization approaches, our work allows for a degree of retraining to new tasks and datasets. …

Cluster-GCN google
Graph convolutional network (GCN) has been successfully applied to many graph-based applications; however, training a large-scale GCN remains challenging. Current SGD-based algorithms suffer from either a high computational cost that exponentially grows with number of GCN layers, or a large space requirement for keeping the entire graph and the embedding of each node in memory. In this paper, we propose Cluster-GCN, a novel GCN algorithm that is suitable for SGD-based training by exploiting the graph clustering structure. Cluster-GCN works as the following: at each step, it samples a block of nodes that associate with a dense subgraph identified by a graph clustering algorithm, and restricts the neighborhood search within this subgraph. This simple but effective strategy leads to significantly improved memory and computational efficiency while being able to achieve comparable test accuracy with previous algorithms. To test the scalability of our algorithm, we create a new Amazon2M data with 2 million nodes and 61 million edges which is more than 5 times larger than the previous largest publicly available dataset (Reddit). For training a 3-layer GCN on this data, Cluster-GCN is faster than the previous state-of-the-art VR-GCN (1523 seconds vs 1961 seconds) and using much less memory (2.2GB vs 11.2GB). Furthermore, for training 4 layer GCN on this data, our algorithm can finish in around 36 minutes while all the existing GCN training algorithms fail to train due to the out-of-memory issue. Furthermore, Cluster-GCN allows us to train much deeper GCN without much time and memory overhead, which leads to improved prediction accuracy—using a 5-layer Cluster-GCN, we achieve state-of-the-art test F1 score 99.36 on the PPI dataset, while the previous best result was 98.71 by [16]. …

MAIA google
In recent decades, it has become a significant tendency for industrial manufacturers to adopt decentralization as a new manufacturing paradigm. This enables more efficient operations and facilitates the shift from mass to customized production. At the same time, advances in data analytics give more insights into the production lines, thus improving its overall productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to apply a decentralized architecture to address new challenges in industrial analytics. The main contributions of this work are therefore two-fold: (1) an assessment of the microservices’ feasibility in industrial environments, and (2) a microservices-based architecture for industrial data analytics. Also, a prototype has been developed, analyzed, and evaluated, to provide further practical insights. Initial evaluation results of this prototype underpin the adoption of microservices in industrial analytics with less than 20ms end-to-end processing latency for predicting movement paths for 100 autonomous robots on a commodity hardware server. However, it also identifies several drawbacks of the approach, which is, among others, the complexity in structure, leading to higher resource consumption. …

Adversarial Metric Learning (AML) google
In the past decades, intensive efforts have been put to design various loss functions and metric forms for metric learning problem. These improvements have shown promising results when the test data is similar to the training data. However, the trained models often fail to produce reliable distances on the ambiguous test pairs due to the distribution bias between training set and test set. To address this problem, the Adversarial Metric Learning (AML) is proposed in this paper, which automatically generates adversarial pairs to remedy the distribution bias and facilitate robust metric learning. Specifically, AML consists of two adversarial stages, i.e. confusion and distinguishment. In confusion stage, the ambiguous but critical adversarial data pairs are adaptively generated to mislead the learned metric. In distinguishment stage, a metric is exhaustively learned to try its best to distinguish both the adversarial pairs and the original training pairs. Thanks to the challenges posed by the confusion stage in such competing process, the AML model is able to grasp plentiful difficult knowledge that has not been contained by the original training pairs, so the discriminability of AML can be significantly improved. The entire model is formulated into optimization framework, of which the global convergence is theoretically proved. The experimental results on toy data and practical datasets clearly demonstrate the superiority of AML to the representative state-of-the-art metric learning methodologies. …

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Forward Thinking google
We present a general framework for training deep neural networks without backpropagation. This substantially decreases training time and also allows for construction of deep networks with many sorts of learners, including networks whose layers are defined by functions that are not easily differentiated, like decision trees. The main idea is that layers can be trained one at a time, and once they are trained, the input data are mapped forward through the layer to create a new learning problem. The process is repeated, transforming the data through multiple layers, one at a time, rendering a new data set, which is expected to be better behaved, and on which a final output layer can achieve good performance. We call this forward thinking and demonstrate a proof of concept by achieving state-of-the-art accuracy on the MNIST dataset for convolutional neural networks. We also provide a general mathematical formulation of forward thinking that allows for other types of deep learning problems to be considered. …

BBGAN google
One major factor impeding more widespread adoption of deep neural networks (DNNs) is their issues with robustness, which is essential for safety critical applications such as autonomous driving. This has motivated much recent work on adversarial attacks for DNNs, which mostly focus on pixel-level perturbations void of semantic meaning. In contrast, we present a general framework for adversarial black box attacks on agents, which are intimately related to the semantics of the task being performed by the agent. To do this, our proposed adversary (denoted as BBGAN) is trained to appropriately parametrize the environment (black box) with which the agent interacts, such that this agent performs poorly on its dedicated task. We illustrate the application of our BBGAN framework on three different tasks (primarily targeting aspects of autonomous navigation): object detection, self-driving, and autonomous UAV racing. On these tasks, our approach can be used to generate failure cases that fool an agent consistently. …

Bundle Generation Network google
Product bundling, offering a combination of items to customers, is one of the marketing strategies commonly used in online e-commerce and offline retailers. A high-quality bundle generalizes frequent items of interest, and diversity across bundles boosts the user-experience and eventually increases transaction volume. In this paper, we formalize the personalized bundle list recommendation as a structured prediction problem and propose a bundle generation network (BGN), which decomposes the problem into quality/diversity parts by the determinantal point processes (DPPs). BGN uses a typical encoder-decoder framework with a proposed feature-aware softmax to alleviate the inadequate representation of traditional softmax, and integrates the masked beam search and DPP selection to produce high-quality and diversified bundle list with an appropriate bundle size. We conduct extensive experiments on three public datasets and one industrial dataset, including two generated from co-purchase records and the other two extracted from real-world online bundle services. BGN significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of quality, diversity and response time over all datasets. In particular, BGN improves the precision of the best competitors by 16\% on average while maintaining the highest diversity on four datasets, and yields a 3.85x improvement of response time over the best competitors in the bundle list recommendation problem. …

Monte Carlo Graph Search (MCGS) google
Recently, there have been great interests in Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) in AI research. Although the sequential version of MCTS has been studied widely, its parallel counterpart still lacks systematic study. This leads us to the following questions: \emph{how to design efficient parallel MCTS (or more general cases) algorithms with rigorous theoretical guarantee? Is it possible to achieve linear speedup?} In this paper, we consider the search problem on a more general acyclic one-root graph (namely, Monte Carlo Graph Search (MCGS)), which generalizes MCTS. We develop a parallel algorithm (P-MCGS) to assign multiple workers to investigate appropriate leaf nodes simultaneously. Our analysis shows that P-MCGS algorithm achieves linear speedup and that the sample complexity is comparable to its sequential counterpart. …

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Lariat google
We propose a new method for supervised learning, especially suited to wide data where the number of features is much greater than the number of observations. The method combines the lasso ($\ell_1$) sparsity penalty with a quadratic penalty that shrinks the coefficient vector toward the leading principal components of the feature matrix. We call the proposed method the ‘Lariat’. The method can be especially powerful if the features are pre-assigned to groups (such as cell-pathways, assays or protein interaction networks). In that case, the Lariat shrinks each group-wise component of the solution toward the leading principal components of that group. In the process, it also carries out selection of the feature groups. We provide some theory for this method and illustrate it on a number of simulated and real data examples. …

TigerGraph google
We present TigerGraph, a graph database system built from the ground up to support massively parallel computation of queries and analytics. TigerGraph’s high-level query language, GSQL, is designed for compatibility with SQL, while simultaneously allowing NoSQL programmers to continue thinking in Bulk-Synchronous Processing (BSP) terms and reap the benefits of high-level specification. GSQL is sufficiently high-level to allow declarative SQL-style programming, yet sufficiently expressive to concisely specify the sophisticated iterative algorithms required by modern graph analytics and traditionally coded in general-purpose programming languages like C++ and Java. We report very strong scale-up and scale-out performance over a benchmark we published on GitHub for full reproducibility. …

Simion Zoo google
We present Simion Zoo, a Reinforcement Learning (RL) workbench that provides a complete set of tools to design, run, and analyze the results,both statistically and visually, of RL control applications. The main features that set apart Simion Zoo from similar software packages are its easy-to-use GUI, its support for distributed execution including deployment over graphics processing units (GPUs) , and the possibility to explore concurrently the RL metaparameter space, which is key to successful RL experimentation. …

Relation-aware Graph Attention Network (ReGAT) google
In order to answer semantically-complicated questions about an image, a Visual Question Answering (VQA) model needs to fully understand the visual scene in the image, especially the interactive dynamics between different objects. We propose a Relation-aware Graph Attention Network (ReGAT), which encodes each image into a graph and models multi-type inter-object relations via a graph attention mechanism, to learn question-adaptive relation representations. Two types of visual object relations are explored: (i) Explicit Relations that represent geometric positions and semantic interactions between objects; and (ii) Implicit Relations that capture the hidden dynamics between image regions. Experiments demonstrate that ReGAT outperforms prior state-of-the-art approaches on both VQA 2.0 and VQA-CP v2 datasets. We further show that ReGAT is compatible to existing VQA architectures, and can be used as a generic relation encoder to boost the model performance for VQA. …

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Interest Narrowness google
The number of posts made by a single user account on a social media platform Twitter in any given time interval is usually quite low. However, there is a subset of users whose volume of posts is much higher than the median. In this paper, we investigate the content diversity and the social neighborhood of these extreme users and others. We define a metric called ‘interest narrowness’, and identify that a subset of extreme users, termed anomalous users, write posts with very low topic diversity, including posts with no text content. Using a few interaction patterns we show that anomalous groups have the strongest within-group interactions, compared to their interaction with others. Further, they exhibit different information sharing behaviors with other anomalous users compared to non-anomalous extreme tweeters. …

Rysearch google
In our work, we propose to represent HTM as a set of flat models, or layers, and a set of topical hierarchies, or edges. We suggest several quality measures for edges of hierarchical models, resembling those proposed for flat models. We conduct an assessment experimentation and show strong correlation between the proposed measures and human judgement on topical edge quality. We also introduce heterogeneous algorithm to build hierarchical topic models for heterogeneous data sources. We show how making certain adjustments to learning process helps to retain original structure of customized models while allowing for slight coherent modifications for new documents. We evaluate this approach using the proposed measures and show that the proposed heterogeneous algorithm significantly outperforms the baseline concat approach. Finally, we implement our own ESE called Rysearch, which demonstrates the potential of ARTM approach for visualizing large heterogeneous document collections. …

Colors of Noise google
In audio engineering, electronics, physics, and many other fields, the color of noise refers to the power spectrum of a noise signal (a signal produced by a stochastic process). Different colors of noise have significantly different properties: for example, as audio signals they will sound different to human ears, and as images they will have a visibly different texture. Therefore, each application typically requires noise of a specific color. This sense of ‘color’ for noise signals is similar to the concept of timbre in music (which is also called ‘tone color’); however the latter is almost always used for sound, and may consider very detailed features of the spectrum. The practice of naming kinds of noise after colors started with white noise, a signal whose spectrum has equal power within any equal interval of frequencies. That name was given by analogy with white light, which was (incorrectly) assumed to have such a flat power spectrum over the visible range. Other color names, like pink, red, and blue were then given to noise with other spectral profiles, often (but not always) in reference to the color of light with similar spectra. Some of those names have standard definitions in certain disciplines, while others are very informal and poorly defined. Many of these definitions assume a signal with components at all frequencies, with a power spectral density per unit of bandwidth proportional to 1/f ß and hence they are examples of power-law noise. For instance, the spectral density of white noise is flat (ß = 0), while flicker or pink noise has ß = 1, and Brownian noise has ß = 2. …

Concept2vec google
Although there is an emerging trend towards generating embeddings for primarily unstructured data, and recently for structured data, there is not yet any systematic suite for measuring the quality of embeddings. This deficiency is further sensed with respect to embeddings generated for structured data because there are no concrete evaluation metrics measuring the quality of encoded structure as well as semantic patterns in the embedding space. In this paper, we introduce a framework containing three distinct tasks concerned with the individual aspects of ontological concepts: (i) the categorization aspect, (ii) the hierarchical aspect, and (iii) the relational aspect. Then, in the scope of each task, a number of intrinsic metrics are proposed for evaluating the quality of the embeddings. Furthermore, w.r.t. this framework multiple experimental studies were run to compare the quality of the available embedding models. Employing this framework in future research can reduce misjudgment and provide greater insight about quality comparisons of embeddings for ontological concepts. …