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Discrete Reasoning Over the Content of Paragraphs (DROP) google
Reading comprehension has recently seen rapid progress, with systems matching humans on the most popular datasets for the task. However, a large body of work has highlighted the brittleness of these systems, showing that there is much work left to be done. We introduce a new English reading comprehension benchmark, DROP, which requires Discrete Reasoning Over the content of Paragraphs. In this crowdsourced, adversarially-created, 96k-question benchmark, a system must resolve references in a question, perhaps to multiple input positions, and perform discrete operations over them (such as addition, counting, or sorting). These operations require a much more comprehensive understanding of the content of paragraphs than what was necessary for prior datasets. We apply state-of-the-art methods from both the reading comprehension and semantic parsing literature on this dataset and show that the best systems only achieve 32.7% F1 on our generalized accuracy metric, while expert human performance is 96.0%. We additionally present a new model that combines reading comprehension methods with simple numerical reasoning to achieve 47.0% F1. …

Multi-Player Bandit google
We study stochastic multi-armed bandits with many players. The players do not know the number of players, cannot communicate with each other and if multiple players select a common arm they collide and none of them receive any reward. We consider the static scenario, where the number of players remains fixed, and the dynamic scenario, where the players enter and leave at any time. We provide algorithms based on a novel `trekking approach’ that guarantees constant regret for the static case and sub-linear regret for the dynamic case with high probability. The trekking approach eliminates the need to estimate the number of players resulting in fewer collisions and improved regret performance compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms. We also develop an epoch-less algorithm that eliminates any requirement of time synchronization across the players provided each player can detect the presence of other players on an arm. We validate our theoretical guarantees using simulation based and real test-bed based experiments.
Multi-Player Bandits: The Adversarial Case


Federated-Autonomous Deep Learning (FADL) google
Electronic health record (EHR) data is collected by individual institutions and often stored across locations in silos. Getting access to these data is difficult and slow due to security, privacy, regulatory, and operational issues. We show, using ICU data from 58 different hospitals, that machine learning models to predict patient mortality can be trained efficiently without moving health data out of their silos using a distributed machine learning strategy. We propose a new method, called Federated-Autonomous Deep Learning (FADL) that trains part of the model using all data sources in a distributed manner and other parts using data from specific data sources. We observed that FADL outperforms traditional federated learning strategy and conclude that balance between global and local training is an important factor to consider when design distributed machine learning methods , especially in healthcare. …

Disentangled Attribution Curve (DAC) google
Tree ensembles, such as random forests and AdaBoost, are ubiquitous machine learning models known for achieving strong predictive performance across a wide variety of domains. However, this strong performance comes at the cost of interpretability (i.e. users are unable to understand the relationships a trained random forest has learned and why it is making its predictions). In particular, it is challenging to understand how the contribution of a particular feature, or group of features, varies as their value changes. To address this, we introduce Disentangled Attribution Curves (DAC), a method to provide interpretations of tree ensemble methods in the form of (multivariate) feature importance curves. For a given variable, or group of variables, DAC plots the importance of a variable(s) as their value changes. We validate DAC on real data by showing that the curves can be used to increase the accuracy of logistic regression while maintaining interpretability, by including DAC as an additional feature. In simulation studies, DAC is shown to out-perform competing methods in the recovery of conditional expectations. Finally, through a case-study on the bike-sharing dataset, we demonstrate the use of DAC to uncover novel insights into a dataset. …

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Progressive Web Application (PWA) google
Progressive web applications (PWAs) are web applications that load like regular web pages or websites but can offer the user functionality such as working offline, push notifications, and device hardware access traditionally available only to native applications. PWAs combine the flexibility of the web with the experience of a native application. …

PyOD google
PyOD is an open-source Python toolbox for performing scalable outlier detection on multivariate data. Uniquely, it provides access to a wide range of outlier detection algorithms, including established outlier ensembles and more recent neural network-based approaches, under a single, well-documented API designed for use by both practitioners and researchers. With robustness and scalability in mind, best practices such as unit testing, continuous integration, code coverage, maintainability checks, interactive examples and parallelization are emphasized as core components in the toolbox’s development. PyOD is compatible with both Python 2 and 3 and can be installed through Python Package Index (PyPI) or https://…/pyod.

Antisymmetrical Initialization (ASI) google
How different initializations and loss functions affect the learning of a deep neural network (DNN), specifically its generalization error, is an important problem in practice. In this work, focusing on regression problems, we develop a kernel-norm minimization framework for the analysis of DNNs in the kernel regime in which the number of neurons in each hidden layer is sufficiently large (Jacot et al. 2018, Lee et al. 2019). We find that, in the kernel regime, for any loss in a general class of functions, e.g., any Lp loss for $1 < p < \infty$, the DNN finds the same global minima-the one that is nearest to the initial value in the parameter space, or equivalently, the one that is closest to the initial DNN output in the corresponding reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With this framework, we prove that a non-zero initial output increases the generalization error of DNN. We further propose an antisymmetrical initialization (ASI) trick that eliminates this type of error and accelerates the training. We also demonstrate experimentally that even for DNNs in the non-kernel regime, our theoretical analysis and the ASI trick remain effective. Overall, our work provides insight into how initialization and loss function quantitatively affect the generalization of DNNs, and also provides guidance for the training of DNNs. …

Spline-Based Probability Calibration (SplineCalib) google
In many classification problems it is desirable to output well-calibrated probabilities on the different classes. We propose a robust, non-parametric method of calibrating probabilities called SplineCalib that utilizes smoothing splines to determine a calibration function. We demonstrate how applying certain transformations as part of the calibration process can improve performance on problems in deep learning and other domains where the scores tend to be ‘overconfident’. We adapt the approach to multi-class problems and find that better calibration can improve accuracy as well as log-loss by better resolving uncertain cases. Finally, we present a cross-validated approach to calibration which conserves data. Significant improvements to log-loss and accuracy are shown on several different problems. We also introduce the ml-insights python package which contains an implementation of the SplineCalib algorithm. …

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Curious Meta-Controller google
Recent success in deep reinforcement learning for continuous control has been dominated by model-free approaches which, unlike model-based approaches, do not suffer from representational limitations in making assumptions about the world dynamics and model errors inevitable in complex domains. However, they require a lot of experiences compared to model-based approaches that are typically more sample-efficient. We propose to combine the benefits of the two approaches by presenting an integrated approach called Curious Meta-Controller. Our approach alternates adaptively between model-based and model-free control using a curiosity feedback based on the learning progress of a neural model of the dynamics in a learned latent space. We demonstrate that our approach can significantly improve the sample efficiency and achieve near-optimal performance on learning robotic reaching and grasping tasks from raw-pixel input in both dense and sparse reward settings. …

Adaptive Window-based Streaming Edge Partitioning (ADWISE) google
In recent years, the graph partitioning problem gained importance as a mandatory preprocessing step for distributed graph processing on very large graphs. Existing graph partitioning algorithms minimize partitioning latency by assigning individual graph edges to partitions in a streaming manner — at the cost of reduced partitioning quality. However, we argue that the mere minimization of partitioning latency is not the optimal design choice in terms of minimizing total graph analysis latency, i.e., the sum of partitioning and processing latency. Instead, for complex and long-running graph processing algorithms that run on very large graphs, it is beneficial to invest more time into graph partitioning to reach a higher partitioning quality — which drastically reduces graph processing latency. In this paper, we propose ADWISE, a novel window-based streaming partitioning algorithm that increases the partitioning quality by always choosing the best edge from a set of edges for assignment to a partition. In doing so, ADWISE controls the partitioning latency by adapting the window size dynamically at run-time. Our evaluations show that ADWISE can reach the sweet spot between graph partitioning latency and graph processing latency, reducing the total latency of partitioning plus processing by up to 23-47 percent compared to the state-of-the-art. …

WikiRank google
Keyphrase is an efficient representation of the main idea of documents. While background knowledge can provide valuable information about documents, they are rarely incorporated in keyphrase extraction methods. In this paper, we propose WikiRank, an unsupervised method for keyphrase extraction based on the background knowledge from Wikipedia. Firstly, we construct a semantic graph for the document. Then we transform the keyphrase extraction problem into an optimization problem on the graph. Finally, we get the optimal keyphrase set to be the output. Our method obtains improvements over other state-of-art models by more than 2% in F1-score. …

Dreaming Neural Network google
Recently a daily routine for associative neural networks has been proposed: the network Hebbian-learns during the awake state (thus behaving as a standard Hopfield model), then, during its sleep state, optimizing information storage, it consolidates pure patterns and removes spurious ones: this forces the synaptic matrix to collapse to the projector one (ultimately approaching the Kanter-Sompolinksy model). This procedure keeps the learning Hebbian-based (a biological must) but, by taking advantage of a (properly stylized) sleep phase, still reaches the maximal critical capacity (for symmetric interactions). So far this emerging picture (as well as the bulk of papers on unlearning techniques) was supported solely by mathematically-challenging routes, e.g. mainly replica-trick analysis and numerical simulations: here we rely extensively on Guerra’s interpolation techniques developed for neural networks and, in particular, we extend the generalized stochastic stability approach to the case. Confining our description within the replica symmetric approximation (where the previous ones lie), the picture painted regarding this generalization (and the previously existing variations on theme) is here entirely confirmed. Further, still relying on Guerra’s schemes, we develop a systematic fluctuation analysis to check where ergodicity is broken (an analysis entirely absent in previous investigations). We find that, as long as the network is awake, ergodicity is bounded by the Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky critical line (as it should), but, as the network sleeps, sleeping destroys spin glass states by extending both the retrieval as well as the ergodic region: after an entire sleeping session the solely surviving regions are retrieval and ergodic ones and this allows the network to achieve the perfect retrieval regime (the number of storable patterns equals the number of neurons in the network). …

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Inferential Statistics google
In statistics, statistical inference is the process of drawing conclusions from data that are subject to random variation, for example, observational errors or sampling variation. More substantially, the terms statistical inference, statistical induction and inferential statistics are used to describe systems of procedures that can be used to draw conclusions from datasets arising from systems affected by random variation, such as observational errors, random sampling, or random experimentation. Initial requirements of such a system of procedures for inference and induction are that the system should produce reasonable answers when applied to well-defined situations and that it should be general enough to be applied across a range of situations. Inferential statistics are used to test hypotheses and make estimations using sample data. …

Homomorphic Instruction Set Architecture (HISA) google
Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) refers to a set of encryption schemes that allow computations to be applied directly on encrypted data without requiring a secret key. This enables novel application scenarios where a client can safely offload storage and computation to a third-party cloud provider without having to trust the software and the hardware vendors with the decryption keys. Recent advances in both FHE schemes and implementations have moved such applications from theoretical possibilities into the realm of practicalities. This paper proposes a compact and well-reasoned interface called the Homomorphic Instruction Set Architecture (HISA) for developing FHE applications. Just as the hardware ISA interface enabled hardware advances to proceed independent of software advances in the compiler and language runtimes, HISA decouples compiler optimizations and runtimes for supporting FHE applications from advancements in the underlying FHE schemes. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of HISA by building an end-to-end software stack for evaluating neural network models on encrypted data. Our stack includes an end-to-end compiler, runtime, and a set of optimizations. Our approach shows generated code, on a set of popular neural network architectures, is faster than hand-optimized implementations. …

One-Shot Learning google
One-shot learning is an object categorization problem in computer vision. Whereas most machine learning based object categorization algorithms require training on hundreds or thousands of images and very large datasets, one-shot learning aims to learn information about object categories from one, or only a few, training images. …

COmprehensive INstructional video analysis (COIN) google
There are substantial instructional videos on the Internet, which enables us to acquire knowledge for completing various tasks. However, most existing datasets for instructional video analysis have the limitations in diversity and scale,which makes them far from many real-world applications where more diverse activities occur. Moreover, it still remains a great challenge to organize and harness such data. To address these problems, we introduce a large-scale dataset called ‘COIN’ for COmprehensive INstructional video analysis. Organized with a hierarchical structure, the COIN dataset contains 11,827 videos of 180 tasks in 12 domains (e.g., vehicles, gadgets, etc.) related to our daily life. With a new developed toolbox, all the videos are annotated effectively with a series of step descriptions and the corresponding temporal boundaries. Furthermore, we propose a simple yet effective method to capture the dependencies among different steps, which can be easily plugged into conventional proposal-based action detection methods for localizing important steps in instructional videos. In order to provide a benchmark for instructional video analysis, we evaluate plenty of approaches on the COIN dataset under different evaluation criteria. We expect the introduction of the COIN dataset will promote the future in-depth research on instructional video analysis for the community. …

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STAcked and Reconstructed Graph Convolutional Network (STAR-GCN) google
We propose a new STAcked and Reconstructed Graph Convolutional Networks (STAR-GCN) architecture to learn node representations for boosting the performance in recommender systems, especially in the cold start scenario. STAR-GCN employs a stack of GCN encoder-decoders combined with intermediate supervision to improve the final prediction performance. Unlike the graph convolutional matrix completion model with one-hot encoding node inputs, our STAR-GCN learns low-dimensional user and item latent factors as the input to restrain the model space complexity. Moreover, our STAR-GCN can produce node embeddings for new nodes by reconstructing masked input node embeddings, which essentially tackles the cold start problem. Furthermore, we discover a label leakage issue when training GCN-based models for link prediction tasks and propose a training strategy to avoid the issue. Empirical results on multiple rating prediction benchmarks demonstrate our model achieves state-of-the-art performance in four out of five real-world datasets and significant improvements in predicting ratings in the cold start scenario. The code implementation is available in https://…/STAR-GCN.

Entity-Duet Neural Ranking Model (EDRM) google
This paper presents the Entity-Duet Neural Ranking Model (EDRM), which introduces knowledge graphs to neural search systems. EDRM represents queries and documents by their words and entity annotations. The semantics from knowledge graphs are integrated in the distributed representations of their entities, while the ranking is conducted by interaction-based neural ranking networks. The two components are learned end-to-end, making EDRM a natural combination of entity-oriented search and neural information retrieval. Our experiments on a commercial search log demonstrate the effectiveness of EDRM. Our analyses reveal that knowledge graph semantics significantly improve the generalization ability of neural ranking models. …

Inner Average Ensemble (IAE) google
Ensemble learning is a method of combining multiple trained models to improve the model accuracy. We introduce the usage of such methods, specifically ensemble average inside Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) architectures. By Inner Average Ensemble (IEA) of multiple convolutional neural layers (CNLs) replacing the single CNLs inside the CNN architecture, the accuracy of the CNN increased. A visual and a similarity score analysis of the features generated from IEA explains why it boosts the model performance. Empirical results using different benchmarking datasets and well-known deep model architectures shows that IEA outperforms the ordinary CNL used in CNNs. …

Triple Trustworthiness Measurement Frame (TTMF) google
The Knowledge graph (KG) uses the triples to describe the facts in the real world. It has been widely used in intelligent analysis and understanding of big data. In constructing a KG, especially in the process of automation building, some noises and errors are inevitably introduced or much knowledges is missed. However, learning tasks based on the KG and its underlying applications both assume that the knowledge in the KG is completely correct and inevitably bring about potential errors. Therefore, in this paper, we establish a unified knowledge graph triple trustworthiness measurement framework to calculate the confidence values for the triples that quantify its semantic correctness and the true degree of the facts expressed. It can be used not only to detect and eliminate errors in the KG but also to identify new triples to improve the KG. The framework is a crisscrossing neural network structure. It synthesizes the internal semantic information in the triples and the global inference information of the KG to achieve the trustworthiness measurement and fusion in the three levels of entity-level, relationship-level, and KG-global-level. We conducted experiments on the common dataset FB15K (from Freebase) and analyzed the validity of the model’s output confidence values. We also tested the framework in the knowledge graph error detection or completion tasks. The experimental results showed that compared with other models, our model achieved significant and consistent improvements on the above tasks, further confirming the capabilities of our model. …

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Sparkle google
Spark is an in-memory analytics platform that targets commodity server environments today. It relies on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) to persist intermediate checkpoint states and final processing results. In Spark, immutable data are used for storing data updates in each iteration, making it inefficient for long running, iterative workloads. A non-deterministic garbage collector further worsens this problem. Sparkle is a library that optimizes memory usage in Spark. It exploits large shared memory to achieve better data shuffling and intermediate storage. Sparkle replaces the current TCP/IP-based shuffle with a shared memory approach and proposes an off-heap memory store for efficient updates. We performed a series of experiments on scale-out clusters and scale-up machines. The optimized shuffle engine leveraging shared memory provides 1.3x to 6x faster performance relative to Vanilla Spark. The off-heap memory store along with the shared-memory shuffle engine provides more than 20x performance increase on a probabilistic graph processing workload that uses a large-scale real-world hyperlink graph. While Sparkle benefits at most from running on large memory machines, it also achieves 1.6x to 5x performance improvements over scale out cluster with equivalent hardware setting. …

Multi-layer Relation Network google
Relational Networks (RN) as introduced by Santoro et al. (2017) have demonstrated strong relational reasoning capabilities with a rather shallow architecture. Its single-layer design, however, only considers pairs of information objects, making it unsuitable for problems requiring reasoning across a higher number of facts. To overcome this limitation, we propose a multi-layer relation network architecture which enables successive refinements of relational information through multiple layers. We show that the increased depth allows for more complex relational reasoning by applying it to the bAbI 20 QA dataset, solving all 20 tasks with joint training and surpassing the state-of-the-art results. …

Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) google
Recently, we proposed short-time Fourier transform (STFT)-based loss functions for training a neural speech waveform model. In this paper, we generalize the above framework and propose a training scheme for such models based on spectral amplitude and phase losses obtained by either STFT or continuous wavelet transform (CWT), or both of them. Since CWT is capable of having time and frequency resolutions different from those of STFT and is cable of considering those closer to human auditory scales, the proposed loss functions could provide complementary information on speech signals. Experimental results showed that it is possible to train a high-quality model by using the proposed CWT spectral loss and is as good as one using STFT-based loss. …

Supermarket Model google
The supermarket model typically refers to a system with a large number of queues, where arriving customers choose $d$ queues at random and join the queue with fewest customers. The supermarket model demonstrates the power of even small amounts of choice, as compared to simply joining a queue chosen uniformly at random, for load balancing systems. …

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Competitive Dense Fully Convolutional Network (CDFNet) google
Increased information sharing through short and long-range skip connections between layers in fully convolutional networks have demonstrated significant improvement in performance for semantic segmentation. In this paper, we propose Competitive Dense Fully Convolutional Networks (CDFNet) by introducing competitive maxout activations in place of naive feature concatenation for inducing competition amongst layers. Within CDFNet, we propose two architectural contributions, namely competitive dense block (CDB) and competitive unpooling block (CUB) to induce competition at local and global scales for short and long-range skip connections respectively. This extension is demonstrated to boost learning of specialized sub-networks targeted at segmenting specific anatomies, which in turn eases the training of complex tasks. We present the proof-of-concept on the challenging task of whole body segmentation in the publicly available VISCERAL benchmark and demonstrate improved performance over multiple learning and registration based state-of-the-art methods. …

Retrospective Convolution google
Change detection has been a challenging visual task due to the dynamic nature of real-world scenes. Good performance of existing methods depends largely on prior background images or a long-term observation. These methods, however, suffer severe degradation when they are applied to detection of instantaneously occurred changes with only a few preceding frames provided. In this paper, we exploit spatio-temporal convolutional networks to address this challenge, and propose a novel retrospective convolution, which features efficient change information extraction between the current frame and frames from historical observation. To address the problem of foreground-specific over-fitting in learning-based methods, we further propose a data augmentation method, named static sample synthesis, to guide the network to focus on learning change-cued information rather than specific spatial features of foreground. Trained end-to-end with complex scenarios, our framework proves to be accurate in detecting instantaneous changes and robust in combating diverse noises. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods. …

Easy Data Augmentation (EDA) google
We present EDA: easy data augmentation techniques for boosting performance on text classification tasks. EDA consists of four simple but powerful operations: synonym replacement, random insertion, random swap, and random deletion. On five text classification tasks, we show that EDA improves performance for both convolutional and recurrent neural networks. EDA demonstrates particularly strong results for smaller datasets; on average, across five datasets, training with EDA while using only 50% of the available training set achieved the same accuracy as normal training with all available data. We also performed extensive ablation studies and suggest parameters for practical use. …

MR3 google
Recommender systems (RSs) provide an effective way of alleviating the information overload problem by selecting personalized items for different users. Latent factors based collaborative filtering (CF) has become the popular approaches for RSs due to its accuracy and scalability. Recently, online social networks and user-generated content provide diverse sources for recommendation beyond ratings. Although {\em social matrix factorization} (Social MF) and {\em topic matrix factorization} (Topic MF) successfully exploit social relations and item reviews, respectively, both of them ignore some useful information. In this paper, we investigate the effective data fusion by combining the aforementioned approaches. First, we propose a novel model {\em \mbox{MR3}} to jointly model three sources of information (i.e., ratings, item reviews, and social relations) effectively for rating prediction by aligning the latent factors and hidden topics. Second, we incorporate the implicit feedback from ratings into the proposed model to enhance its capability and to demonstrate its flexibility. We achieve more accurate rating prediction on real-life datasets over various state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, we measure the contribution from each of the three data sources and the impact of implicit feedback from ratings, followed by the sensitivity analysis of hyperparameters. Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness and efficacy of our proposed model and its extension. …

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AI Fairness 360 (AIF360) google
Fairness is an increasingly important concern as machine learning models are used to support decision making in high-stakes applications such as mortgage lending, hiring, and prison sentencing. This paper introduces a new open source Python toolkit for algorithmic fairness, AI Fairness 360 (AIF360), released under an Apache v2.0 license {https://…/aif360 ). The main objectives of this toolkit are to help facilitate the transition of fairness research algorithms to use in an industrial setting and to provide a common framework for fairness researchers to share and evaluate algorithms. The package includes a comprehensive set of fairness metrics for datasets and models, explanations for these metrics, and algorithms to mitigate bias in datasets and models. It also includes an interactive Web experience (https://aif360.mybluemix.net ) that provides a gentle introduction to the concepts and capabilities for line-of-business users, as well as extensive documentation, usage guidance, and industry-specific tutorials to enable data scientists and practitioners to incorporate the most appropriate tool for their problem into their work products. The architecture of the package has been engineered to conform to a standard paradigm used in data science, thereby further improving usability for practitioners. Such architectural design and abstractions enable researchers and developers to extend the toolkit with their new algorithms and improvements, and to use it for performance benchmarking. A built-in testing infrastructure maintains code quality. …

Tensor-Based Robust Principal Component Analysis (Tensor-RPCA) google
This paper studies tensor-based Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) using atomic-norm regularization. Given the superposition of a sparse and a low-rank tensor, we present conditions under which it is possible to exactly recover the sparse and low-rank components. Our results improve on existing performance guarantees for tensor-RPCA, including those for matrix RPCA. Our guarantees also show that atomic-norm regularization provides better recovery for tensor-structured data sets than other approaches based on matricization. In addition to these performance guarantees, we study a nonconvex formulation of the tensor atomic-norm and identify a class of local minima of this nonconvex program that are globally optimal. We demonstrate the strong performance of our approach in numerical experiments, where we show that our nonconvex model reliably recovers tensors with ranks larger than all of their side lengths, significantly outperforming other algorithms that require matricization. …

Perceptron Ranking Using Interval Labeled Data (PRIL) google
In this paper, we propose an online learning algorithm PRIL for learning ranking classifiers using interval labeled data and show its correctness. We show its convergence in finite number of steps if there exists an ideal classifier such that the rank given by it for an example always lies in its label interval. We then generalize this mistake bound result for the general case. We also provide regret bound for the proposed algorithm. We propose a multiplicative update algorithm for PRIL called M-PRIL. We provide its correctness and convergence results. We show the effectiveness of PRIL by showing its performance on various datasets. …

Federated Multi-Task Hierarchical Attention Model (FATHOM) google
Sensors are an integral part of modern Internet of Things (IoT) applications. There is a critical need for the analysis of heterogeneous multivariate temporal data obtained from the individual sensors of these systems. In this paper we particularly focus on the problem of the scarce amount of training data available per sensor. We propose a novel federated multi-task hierarchical attention model (FATHOM) that jointly trains classification/regression models from multiple sensors. The attention mechanism of the proposed model seeks to extract feature representations from the input and learn a shared representation focused on time dimensions across multiple sensors. The underlying temporal and non-linear relationships are modeled using a combination of attention mechanism and long-short term memory (LSTM) networks. We find that our proposed method outperforms a wide range of competitive baselines in both classification and regression settings on activity recognition and environment monitoring datasets. We further provide visualization of feature representations learned by our model at the input sensor level and central time level. …

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Path-Augmented Graph Transformer Network (PAGTN) google
Much of the recent work on learning molecular representations has been based on Graph Convolution Networks (GCN). These models rely on local aggregation operations and can therefore miss higher-order graph properties. To remedy this, we propose Path-Augmented Graph Transformer Networks (PAGTN) that are explicitly built on longer-range dependencies in graph-structured data. Specifically, we use path features in molecular graphs to create global attention layers. We compare our PAGTN model against the GCN model and show that our model consistently outperforms GCNs on molecular property prediction datasets including quantum chemistry (QM7, QM8, QM9), physical chemistry (ESOL, Lipophilictiy) and biochemistry (BACE, BBBP). …

LambdaOpt google
Recommendation models mainly deal with categorical variables, such as user/item ID and attributes. Besides the high-cardinality issue, the interactions among such categorical variables are usually long-tailed, with the head made up of highly frequent values and a long tail of rare ones. This phenomenon results in the data sparsity issue, making it essential to regularize the models to ensure generalization. The common practice is to employ grid search to manually tune regularization hyperparameters based on the validation data. However, it requires non-trivial efforts and large computation resources to search the whole candidate space; even so, it may not lead to the optimal choice, for which different parameters should have different regularization strengths. In this paper, we propose a hyperparameter optimization method, LambdaOpt, which automatically and adaptively enforces regularization during training. Specifically, it updates the regularization coefficients based on the performance of validation data. With LambdaOpt, the notorious tuning of regularization hyperparameters can be avoided; more importantly, it allows fine-grained regularization (i.e. each parameter can have an individualized regularization coefficient), leading to better generalized models. We show how to employ LambdaOpt on matrix factorization, a classical model that is representative of a large family of recommender models. Extensive experiments on two public benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our method in boosting the performance of top-K recommendation. …

Agreement-Based Learning google
Model selection is a problem that has occupied machine learning researchers for a long time. Recently, its importance has become evident through applications in deep learning. We propose an agreement-based learning framework that prevents many of the pitfalls associated with model selection. It relies on coupling the training of multiple models by encouraging them to agree on their predictions while training. In contrast with other model selection and combination approaches used in machine learning, the proposed framework is inspired by human learning. We also propose a learning algorithm defined within this framework which manages to significantly outperform alternatives in practice, and whose performance improves further with the availability of unlabeled data. Finally, we describe a number of potential directions for developing more flexible agreement-based learning algorithms. …

Nauta google
Nauta provides a multi-user, distributed computing environment for running DL model training experiments on Intel® Xeon® Scalable processor-based systems. Results can be viewed and monitored using a command line interface, web UI and/or TensorBoard*. Developers can use existing data sets, proprietary data, or downloaded data from online sources, and create public or private folders to make collaboration among teams easier. For scalability and ease of management, Nauta uses components from the industry-leading Kubernetes* orchestration system, leveraging Kubeflow*, and Docker* for containerized machine learning at scale. DL model templates are available (and customizable) on the platform, removing complexities associated with creating and running single and multi-node deep learning training experiments. For model testing, Nauta also supports both batch and streaming inference, all in a single platform. …

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Stochastic Average Gradient Descent (SAGD) google
We develop and analyze a new algorithm for empirical risk minimization, which is the key paradigm for training supervised machine learning models. Our method—SAGD—is based on a probabilistic interpolation of SAGA and gradient descent (GD). In particular, in each iteration we take a gradient step with probability $q$ and a SAGA step with probability $1-q$. We show that, surprisingly, the total expected complexity of the method (which is obtained by multiplying the number of iterations by the expected number of gradients computed in each iteration) is minimized for a non-trivial probability $q$. For example, for a well conditioned problem the choice $q=1/(n-1)^2$, where $n$ is the number of data samples, gives a method with an overall complexity which is better than both the complexity of GD and SAGA. We further generalize the results to a probabilistic interpolation of SAGA and minibatch SAGA, which allows us to compute both the optimal probability and the optimal minibatch size. While the theoretical improvement may not be large, the practical improvement is robustly present across all synthetic and real data we tested for, and can be substantial. Our theoretical results suggest that for this optimal minibatch size our method achieves linear speedup in minibatch size, which is of key practical importance as minibatch implementations are used to train machine learning models in practice. This is the first time linear speedup in minibatch size is obtained for a variance reduced gradient-type method by directly solving the primal empirical risk minimization problem. …

Bayesian Generative Active Deep Learning google
Deep learning models have demonstrated outstanding performance in several problems, but their training process tends to require immense amounts of computational and human resources for training and labeling, constraining the types of problems that can be tackled. Therefore, the design of effective training methods that require small labeled training sets is an important research direction that will allow a more effective use of resources. Among current approaches designed to address this issue, two are particularly interesting: data augmentation and active learning. Data augmentation achieves this goal by artificially generating new training points, while active learning relies on the selection of the ‘most informative’ subset of unlabeled training samples to be labelled by an oracle. Although successful in practice, data augmentation can waste computational resources because it indiscriminately generates samples that are not guaranteed to be informative, and active learning selects a small subset of informative samples (from a large un-annotated set) that may be insufficient for the training process. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian generative active deep learning approach that combines active learning with data augmentation — we provide theoretical and empirical evidence (MNIST, CIFAR-${10,100}$, and SVHN) that our approach has more efficient training and better classification results than data augmentation and active learning. …

GeneRAting TIme Series (GRATIS) google
The explosion of time series data in recent years has brought a flourish of new time series analysis methods, for forecasting, clustering, classification and other tasks. The evaluation of these new methods requires a diverse collection of time series benchmarking data to enable reliable comparisons against alternative approaches. We propose GeneRAting TIme Series with diverse and controllable characteristics, named GRATIS, with the use of mixture autoregressive (MAR) models. We generate sets of time series using MAR models and investigate the diversity and coverage of the generated time series in a time series feature space. By tuning the parameters of the MAR models, GRATIS is also able to efficiently generate new time series with controllable features. In general, as a costless surrogate to the traditional data collection approach, GRATIS can be used as an evaluation tool for tasks such as time series forecasting and classification. We illustrate the usefulness of our time series generation process through a time series forecasting application. …

Quality Diversity google
While evolutionary computation and evolutionary robotics take inspiration from nature, they have long focused mainly on problems of performance optimization. Yet evolution in nature can be interpreted as more nuanced than a process of simple optimization. In particular, natural evolution is a divergent search that optimizes locally within each niche as it simultaneously diversifies. This tendency to discover both quality and diversity at the same time differs from many of the conventional algorithms of machine learning, and also thereby suggests a different foundation for inferring the approach of greatest potential for evolutionary algorithms. In fact, several recent evolutionary algorithms called quality diversity (QD) algorithms(e.g. novelty search with local competition and MAP-Elites) have drawn inspiration from this more nuanced view, aiming to fill a space of possibilities with the best possible example of each type of achievable behavior. The result is a new class of algorithms that return an archive of diverse, high-quality behaviors in a single run. The aim in this paper is to study the application of QD algorithms in challenging environments (in particular complex mazes) to establish their best practices for ambitious domains in the future. In addition to providing insight into cases when QD succeeds and fails, a new approach is investigated that hybridizes multiple views of behaviors (called behavior characterizations) in the same run, which succeeds in overcoming some of the challenges associated with searching for QD with respect to a behavior characterization that is not necessarily sufficient for generating both quality and diversity at the same time. …