If you did not already know

Class Label Autoencoder google
Existing zero-shot learning (ZSL) methods usually learn a projection function between a feature space and a semantic embedding space(text or attribute space) in the training seen classes or testing unseen classes. However, the projection function cannot be used between the feature space and multi-semantic embedding spaces, which have the diversity characteristic for describing the different semantic information of the same class. To deal with this issue, we present a novel method to ZSL based on learning class label autoencoder (CLA). CLA can not only build a uniform framework for adapting to multi-semantic embedding spaces, but also construct the encoder-decoder mechanism for constraining the bidirectional projection between the feature space and the class label space. Moreover, CLA can jointly consider the relationship of feature classes and the relevance of the semantic classes for improving zero-shot classification. The CLA solution can provide both unseen class labels and the relation of the different classes representation(feature or semantic information) that can encode the intrinsic structure of classes. Extensive experiments demonstrate the CLA outperforms state-of-art methods on four benchmark datasets, which are AwA, CUB, Dogs and ImNet-2. …

BlueSky Statistics google
Fully featured Statistics application and development framework built on the open source R project. Provides familiar powerful user interface available in mainstream statistical applications like SPSS, SAS etc. Unlocks the power of R for the analyst community by providing a rich GUI and output for several popular statistics, data mining, data manipulation and graphics commands, all out of the box… Provide a rich development framework for developing and deploying new statistical modules, applications or functions with rich graphical user interfaces and output, all through intuitive drag and drop user interfaces (No programming required).
A quick look at BlueSky Statistics

Determinantal Point Processes Network (DPPNet) google
Determinantal Point Processes (DPPs) provide an elegant and versatile way to sample sets of items that balance the point-wise quality with the set-wise diversity of selected items. For this reason, they have gained prominence in many machine learning applications that rely on subset selection. However, sampling from a DPP over a ground set of size $N$ is a costly operation, requiring in general an $O(N^3)$ preprocessing cost and an $O(Nk^3)$ sampling cost for subsets of size $k$. We approach this problem by introducing DPPNets: generative deep models that produce DPP-like samples for arbitrary ground sets. We develop an inhibitive attention mechanism based on transformer networks that captures a notion of dissimilarity between feature vectors. We show theoretically that such an approximation is sensible as it maintains the guarantees of inhibition or dissimilarity that makes DPPs so powerful and unique. Empirically, we demonstrate that samples from our model receive high likelihood under the more expensive DPP alternative. …


Book Memo: “Searchable Storage in Cloud Computing”

This book presents the state-of-the-art work in terms of searchable storage in cloud computing. It introduces and presents new schemes for exploring and exploiting the searchable storage via cost-efficient semantic hashing computation. Specifically, the contents in this book include basic hashing structures (Bloom filters, locality sensitive hashing, cuckoo hashing), semantic storage systems, and searchable namespace, which support multiple applications, such as cloud backups, exact and approximate queries and image analytics. Readers would be interested in the searchable techniques due to the ease of use and simplicity. More importantly, all these mentioned structures and techniques have been really implemented to support real-world applications, some of which offer open-source codes for public use. Readers will obtain solid backgrounds, new insights and implementation experiences with basic knowledge in data structure and computer systems.

Whats new on arXiv

CFOF: A Concentration Free Measure for Anomaly Detection

We present a novel notion of outlier, called the Concentration Free Outlier Factor, or CFOF. As a main contribution, we formalize the notion of concentration of outlier scores and theoretically prove that CFOF does not concentrate in the Euclidean space for any arbitrary large dimensionality. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other proposals of data analysis measures related to the Euclidean distance for which it has been provided theoretical evidence that they are immune to the concentration effect. We determine the closed form of the distribution of CFOF scores in arbitrarily large dimensionalities and show that the CFOF score of a point depends on its squared norm standard score and on the kurtosis of the data distribution, thus providing a clear and statistically founded characterization of this notion. Moreover, we leverage this closed form to provide evidence that the definition does not suffer of the hubness problem affecting other measures. We prove that the number of CFOF outliers coming from each cluster is proportional to cluster size and kurtosis, a property that we call semi-locality. We determine that semi-locality characterizes existing reverse nearest neighbor-based outlier definitions, thus clarifying the exact nature of their observed local behavior. We also formally prove that classical distance-based and density-based outliers concentrate both for bounded and unbounded sample sizes and for fixed and variable values of the neighborhood parameter. We introduce the fast-CFOF algorithm for detecting outliers in large high-dimensional dataset. The algorithm has linear cost, supports multi-resolution analysis, and is embarrassingly parallel. Experiments highlight that the technique is able to efficiently process huge datasets and to deal even with large values of the neighborhood parameter, to avoid concentration, and to obtain excellent accuracy.

MAD-GAN: Multivariate Anomaly Detection for Time Series Data with Generative Adversarial Networks

The prevalence of networked sensors and actuators in many real-world systems such as smart buildings, factories, power plants, and data centers generate substantial amounts of multivariate time series data for these systems. The rich sensor data can be continuously monitored for intrusion events through anomaly detection. However, conventional threshold-based anomaly detection methods are inadequate due to the dynamic complexities of these systems, while supervised machine learning methods are unable to exploit the large amounts of data due to the lack of labeled data. On the other hand, current unsupervised machine learning approaches have not fully exploited the spatial-temporal correlation and other dependencies amongst the multiple variables (sensors/actuators) in the system for detecting anomalies. In this work, we propose an unsupervised multivariate anomaly detection method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Instead of treating each data stream independently, our proposed MAD-GAN framework considers the entire variable set concurrently to capture the latent interactions amongst the variables. We also fully exploit both the generator and discriminator produced by the GAN, using a novel anomaly score called DR-score to detect anomalies by discrimination and reconstruction. We have tested our proposed MAD-GAN using two recent datasets collected from real-world CPS: the Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) and the Water Distribution (WADI) datasets. Our experimental results showed that the proposed MAD-GAN is effective in reporting anomalies caused by various cyber-intrusions compared in these complex real-world systems.

The Bayesian Prophet: A Low-Regret Framework for Online Decision Making

Motivated by the success of using black-box predictive algorithms as subroutines for online decision-making, we develop a new framework for designing online policies given access to an oracle providing statistical information about an offline benchmark. Having access to such prediction oracles enables simple and natural Bayesian selection policies, and raises the question as to how these policies perform in different settings. Our work makes two important contributions towards tackling this question: First, we develop a general technique we call *compensated coupling* which can be used to derive bounds on the expected regret (i.e., additive loss with respect to a benchmark) for any online policy and offline benchmark; Second, using this technique, we show that the Bayes Selector has constant expected regret (i.e., independent of the number of arrivals and resource levels) in any online packing and matching problem with a finite type-space. Our results generalize and simplify many existing results for online packing and matching problems, and suggest a promising pathway for obtaining oracle-driven policies for other online decision-making settings.

Achlys : Towards a framework for distributed storage and generic computing applications for wireless IoT edge networks with Lasp on GRiSP

Internet of Things (IoT) has gained substantial attention over the past years. And the main discussion has been how to process the amount of data that it generates which has lead to the edge computing paradigm. Wether it is called fog1, edge or mist, the principle remains that cloud services must become available closer to clients. This documents presents ongoing work on future edge systems that are built to provide steadfast IoT services to users by bringing storage and processing power closer to peripheral parts of networks. Designing such infrastructures is becoming much more challenging as the number of IoT devices keeps growing. Production grade deployments have to meet very high performance requirements, and end-to-end solutions involve significant investments. In this paper, we aim at providing a solution to extend the range of the edge model to the very farthest nodes in the network. Specifically, we focus on providing reliable storage and computation capabilities immediately on wireless IoT sensor nodes. This extended edge model will allow end users to manage their IoT ecosystem without forcibly relying on gateways or Internet provider solutions. In this document, we introduce Achlys, a prototype implementation of an edge node that is a concrete port of the Lasp programming library on the GRiSP Erlang embedded system. This way, we aim at addressing the need for a general purpose edge that is both resilient and consistent in terms of storage and network. Finally, we study example use cases that could take advantage of integrating the Achlys framework and discuss future work for the latter.

AI Pipeline – bringing AI to you. End-to-end integration of data, algorithms and deployment tools

Next generation of embedded Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems are interconnected collaborative intelligent systems able to perform autonomous tasks. Training and deployment of such systems on Edge devices however require a fine-grained integration of data and tools to achieve high accuracy and overcome functional and non-functional requirements. In this work, we present a modular AI pipeline as an integrating framework to bring data, algorithms and deployment tools together. By these means, we are able to interconnect the different entities or stages of particular systems and provide an end-to-end development of AI products. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AI pipeline by solving an Automatic Speech Recognition challenge and we show that all the steps leading to an end-to-end development for Key-word Spotting tasks: importing, partitioning and pre-processing of speech data, training of different neural network architectures and their deployment on heterogeneous embedded platforms.

Actions Speak Louder Than (Pass)words: Passive Authentication of Smartphone Users via Deep Temporal Features

Prevailing user authentication schemes on smartphones rely on explicit user interaction, where a user types in a passcode or presents a biometric cue such as face, fingerprint, or iris. In addition to being cumbersome and obtrusive to the users, such authentication mechanisms pose security and privacy concerns. Passive authentication systems can tackle these challenges by frequently and unobtrusively monitoring the user’s interaction with the device. In this paper, we propose a Siamese Long Short-Term Memory network architecture for passive authentication, where users can be verified without requiring any explicit authentication step. We acquired a dataset comprising of measurements from 30 smartphone sensor modalities for 37 users. We evaluate our approach on 8 dominant modalities, namely, keystroke dynamics, GPS location, accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, linear accelerometer, gravity, and rotation sensors. Experimental results find that, within 3 seconds, a genuine user can be correctly verified 97.15% of the time at a false accept rate of 0.1%.

DINGO: Distributed Newton-Type Method for Gradient-Norm Optimization

For optimization of a sum of functions in a distributed computing environment, we present a novel communication efficient Newton-type algorithm that enjoys a variety of advantages over similar existing methods. Similar to Newton-MR, our algorithm, DINGO, is derived by optimization of the gradient’s norm as a surrogate function. DINGO does not impose any specific form on the underlying functions, and its application range extends far beyond convexity. In addition, the distribution of the data across the computing environment can be almost arbitrary. Further, the underlying sub-problems of DINGO are simple linear least-squares, for which a plethora of efficient algorithms exist. Lastly, DINGO involves a few hyper-parameters that are easy to tune. Moreover, we theoretically show that DINGO is not sensitive to the choice of its hyper-parameters in that a strict reduction in the gradient norm is guaranteed, regardless of the selected hyper-parameters. We demonstrate empirical evidence of the effectiveness, stability and versatility of our method compared to other relevant algorithms, on both convex and non-convex problems.

SkinnerDB: Regret-Bounded Query Evaluation via Reinforcement Learning

SkinnerDB is designed from the ground up for reliable join ordering. It maintains no data statistics and uses no cost or cardinality models. Instead, it uses reinforcement learning to learn optimal join orders on the fly, during the execution of the current query. To that purpose, we divide the execution of a query into many small time slices. Different join orders are tried in different time slices. We merge result tuples generated according to different join orders until a complete result is obtained. By measuring execution progress per time slice, we identify promising join orders as execution proceeds. Along with SkinnerDB, we introduce a new quality criterion for query execution strategies. We compare expected execution cost against execution cost for an optimal join order. SkinnerDB features multiple execution strategies that are optimized for that criterion. Some of them can be executed on top of existing database systems. For maximal performance, we introduce a customized execution engine, facilitating fast join order switching via specialized multi-way join algorithms and tuple representations. We experimentally compare SkinnerDB’s performance against various baselines, including MonetDB, Postgres, and adaptive processing methods. We consider various benchmarks, including the join order benchmark and TPC-H variants with user-defined functions. Overall, the overheads of reliable join ordering are negligible compared to the performance impact of the occasional, catastrophic join order choice.

A Functional Representation for Graph Matching

Graph matching is an important and persistent problem in computer vision and pattern recognition for finding node-to-node correspondence between graph-structured data. However, as widely used, graph matching that incorporates pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP), which is NP-complete and results in intrinsic computational difficulties. In this paper, we present a functional representation for graph matching (FRGM) that aims to provide more geometric insights on the problem and reduce the space and time complexities of corresponding algorithms. To achieve these goals, we represent a graph endowed with edge attributes by a linear function space equipped with a functional such as inner product or metric, that has an explicit geometric meaning. Consequently, the correspondence between graphs can be represented as a linear representation map of that functional. Specifically, we reformulate the linear functional representation map as a new parameterization for Euclidean graph matching, which is associative with geometric parameters for graphs under rigid or nonrigid deformations. This allows us to estimate the correspondence and geometric deformations simultaneously. The use of the representation of edge attributes rather than the affinity matrix enables us to reduce the space complexity by two orders of magnitudes. Furthermore, we propose an efficient optimization strategy with low time complexity to optimize the objective function. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed FRGM can achieve state-of-the-art performance.

A Note on the Estimation Method of Intervention Effects based on Statistical Decision Theory

In this paper, we deal with the problem of estimating the intervention effect in the statistical causal analysis using the structural equation model and the causal diagram. The intervention effect is defined as a causal effect on the response variable Y when the causal variable X is fixed to a certain value by an external operation and is defined based on the causal diagram. The intervention effect is defined as a function of the probability distributions in the causal diagram, however, generally these probability distributions are unknown, so it is required to estimate them from data. In other words, the steps of the estimation of the intervention effect using the causal diagram are as follows: 1. Estimate the causal diagram from the data, 2. Estimate the probability distributions in the causal diagram from the data, 3. Calculate the intervention effect. However, if the problem of estimating the intervention effect is formulated in the statistical decision theory framework, estimation with this procedure is not necessarily optimal. In this study, we formulate the problem of estimating the intervention effect for the two cases, the case where the causal diagram is known and the case where it is unknown, in the framework of statistical decision theory and derive the optimal decision method under the Bayesian criterion. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method through numerical simulations.

Sentence transition matrix: An efficient approach that preserves sentence semantics

Sentence embedding is a significant research topic in the field of natural language processing (NLP). Generating sentence embedding vectors reflecting the intrinsic meaning of a sentence is a key factor to achieve an enhanced performance in various NLP tasks such as sentence classification and document summarization. Therefore, various sentence embedding models based on supervised and unsupervised learning have been proposed after the advent of researches regarding the distributed representation of words. They were evaluated through semantic textual similarity (STS) tasks, which measure the degree of semantic preservation of a sentence and neural network-based supervised embedding models generally yielded state-of-the-art performance. However, these models have a limitation in that they have multiple parameters to update, thereby requiring a tremendous amount of labeled training data. In this study, we propose an efficient approach that learns a transition matrix that refines a sentence embedding vector to reflect the latent semantic meaning of a sentence. The proposed method has two practical advantages; (1) it can be applied to any sentence embedding method, and (2) it can achieve robust performance in STS tasks irrespective of the number of training examples.

Smooth Adjustment for Correlated Effects

This paper considers a high dimensional linear regression model with corrected variables. A variety of methods have been developed in recent years, yet it is still challenging to keep accurate estimation when there are complex correlation structures among predictors and the response. We propose an adaptive and ‘reversed’ penalty for regularization to solve this problem. This penalty doesn’t shrink variables but focuses on removing the shrinkage bias and encouraging grouping effect. Combining the l_1 penalty and the Minimax Concave Penalty (MCP), we propose two methods called Smooth Adjustment for Correlated Effects (SACE) and Generalized Smooth Adjustment for Correlated Effects (GSACE). Compared with the traditional adaptive estimator, the proposed methods have less influence from the initial estimator and can reduce the false negatives of the initial estimation. The proposed methods can be seen as linear functions of the new penalty’s tuning parameter, and are shown to estimate the coefficients accurately in both extremely highly correlated variables situation and weakly correlated variables situation. Under mild regularity conditions we prove that the methods satisfy certain oracle property. We show by simulations and applications that the proposed methods often outperforms other methods.

Robot Sequential Decision Making using LSTM-based Learning and Logical-probabilistic Reasoning

Sequential decision-making (SDM) plays a key role in intelligent robotics, and can be realized in very different ways, such as supervised learning, automated reasoning, and probabilistic planning. The three families of methods follow different assumptions and have different (dis)advantages. In this work, we aim at a robot SDM framework that exploits the complementary features of learning, reasoning, and planning. We utilize long short-term memory (LSTM), for passive state estimation with streaming sensor data, and commonsense reasoning and probabilistic planning (CORPP) for active information collection and task accomplishment. In experiments, a mobile robot is tasked with estimating human intentions using their motion trajectories, declarative contextual knowledge, and human-robot interaction (dialog-based and motion-based). Results suggest that our framework performs better than its no-learning and no-reasoning versions in a real-world office environment.

Optimization Models for Machine Learning: A Survey

This paper surveys the machine learning literature and presents machine learning as optimization models. Such models can benefit from the advancement of numerical optimization techniques which have already played a distinctive role in several machine learning settings. Particularly, mathematical optimization models are presented for commonly used machine learning approaches for regression, classification, clustering, and deep neural networks as well new emerging applications in machine teaching and empirical model learning. The strengths and the shortcomings of these models are discussed and potential research directions are highlighted.

A review of single-source unsupervised domain adaptation

Domain adaptation has become a prominent problem setting in machine learning and related fields. This review asks the questions: when and how a classifier can learn from a source domain and generalize to a target domain. As for when, we review conditions that allow for cross-domain generalization error bounds. As for how, we present a categorization of approaches, divided into, what we refer to as, sample-based, feature-based and inference-based methods. Sample-based methods focus on weighting individual observations during training based on their importance to the target domain. Feature-based methods focus on mapping, projecting and representing features such that a source classifier performs well on the target domain and inference-based methods focus on alternative estimators, such as robust, minimax or Bayesian. Our categorization highlights recurring ideas and raises a number of questions important to further research.

TensorFlow.js: Machine Learning for the Web and Beyond

TensorFlow.js is a library for building and executing machine learning algorithms in JavaScript. TensorFlow.js models run in a web browser and in the Node.js environment. The library is part of the TensorFlow ecosystem, providing a set of APIs that are compatible with those in Python, allowing models to be ported between the Python and JavaScript ecosystems. TensorFlow.js has empowered a new set of developers from the extensive JavaScript community to build and deploy machine learning models and enabled new classes of on-device computation. This paper describes the design, API, and implementation of TensorFlow.js, and highlights some of the impactful use cases.

Representation Learning on Graphs: A Reinforcement Learning Application

In this work, we study value function approximation in reinforcement learning (RL) problems with high dimensional state or action spaces via a generalized version of representation policy iteration (RPI). We consider the limitations of proto-value functions (PVFs) at accurately approximating the value function in low dimensions and we highlight the importance of features learning for an improved low-dimensional value function approximation. Then, we adopt different representation learning algorithm on graphs to learn the basis functions that best represent the value function. We empirically show that node2vec, an algorithm for scalable feature learning in networks, and the Variational Graph Auto-Encoder constantly outperform the commonly used smooth proto-value functions in low-dimensionl feature space.

How to Host a Data Competition: Statistical Advice for Design and Analysis of a Data Competition

Data competitions rely on real-time leaderboards to rank competitor entries and stimulate algorithm improvement. While such competitions have become quite popular and prevalent, particularly in supervised learning formats, their implementations by the host are highly variable. Without careful planning, a supervised learning competition is vulnerable to overfitting, where the winning solutions are so closely tuned to the particular set of provided data that they cannot generalize to the underlying problem of interest to the host. This paper outlines some important considerations for strategically designing relevant and informative data sets to maximize the learning outcome from hosting a competition based on our experience. It also describes a post-competition analysis that enables robust and efficient assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of solutions from different competitors, as well as greater understanding of the regions of the input space that are well-solved. The post-competition analysis, which complements the leaderboard, uses exploratory data analysis and generalized linear models (GLMs). The GLMs not only expand the range of results we can explore, they also provide more detailed analysis of individual sub-questions including similarities and differences between algorithms across different types of scenarios, universally easy or hard regions of the input space, and different learning objectives. When coupled with a strategically planned data generation approach, the methods provide richer and more informative summaries to enhance the interpretation of results beyond just the rankings on the leaderboard. The methods are illustrated with a recently completed competition to evaluate algorithms capable of detecting, identifying, and locating radioactive materials in an urban environment.

UAN: Unified Attention Network for Convolutional Neural Networks

We propose a new architecture that learns to attend to different Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) layers (i.e., different levels of abstraction) and different spatial locations (i.e., specific layers within a given feature map) in a sequential manner to perform the task at hand. Specifically, at each Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) timestep, a CNN layer is selected and its output is processed by a spatial soft-attention mechanism. We refer to this architecture as the Unified Attention Network (UAN), since it combines the ‘what’ and ‘where’ aspects of attention, i.e., ‘what’ level of abstraction to attend to, and ‘where’ should the network look at. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach on two computer vision tasks: (i) image-based camera pose and orientation regression and (ii) indoor scene classification. We evaluate our method on standard benchmarks for camera localization (Cambridge, 7-Scene, and TUM-LSI datasets) and for scene classification (MIT-67 indoor dataset), and show that our method improves upon the results of previous methods. Empirically, we show that combining ‘what’ and ‘where’ aspects of attention improves network performance on both tasks.

Learning from Dialogue after Deployment: Feed Yourself, Chatbot!

The majority of conversations a dialogue agent sees over its lifetime occur after it has already been trained and deployed, leaving a vast store of potential training signal untapped. In this work, we propose the self-feeding chatbot, a dialogue agent with the ability to extract new training examples from the conversations it participates in. As our agent engages in conversation, it also estimates user satisfaction in its responses. When the conversation appears to be going well, the user’s responses become new training examples to imitate. When the agent believes it has made a mistake, it asks for feedback; learning to predict the feedback that will be given improves the chatbot’s dialogue abilities further. On the PersonaChat chit-chat dataset with over 131k training examples, we find that learning from dialogue with a self-feeding chatbot significantly improves performance, regardless of the amount of traditional supervision.

Relative Age of Information: A New Metric for Status Update Systems

In this paper, we introduce a new data freshness metric, relative Age of Information (rAoI), and examine it in a single server system with various packet management schemes. The (classical) AoI metric was introduced to measure the staleness of status updates at the receiving end with respect to their generation at the source. This metric addresses systems where the timings of update generation at the source are absolute and can be designed separately or jointly with the transmission schedules. In many decentralized applications, transmission schedules are blind to update generation timing, and the transmitter can know the timing of an update packet only after it arrives. As such, an update becomes stale after a new one arrives. The rAoI metric measures how fresh the data is at the receiver with respect to the data at the transmitter. It introduces a particularly explicit dependence on the arrival process in the evaluation of age. We investigate several queuing disciplines and provide closed form expressions for rAoI and numerical comparisons.

Evolutionarily-Curated Curriculum Learning for Deep Reinforcement Learning Agents

In this paper we propose a new training loop for deep reinforcement learning agents with an evolutionary generator. Evolutionary procedural content generation has been used in the creation of maps and levels for games before. Our system incorporates an evolutionary map generator to construct a training curriculum that is evolved to maximize loss within the state-of-the-art Double Dueling Deep Q Network architecture with prioritized replay. We present a case-study in which we prove the efficacy of our new method on a game with a discrete, large action space we made called Attackers and Defenders. Our results demonstrate that training on an evolutionarily-curated curriculum (directed sampling) of maps both expedites training and improves generalization when compared to a network trained on an undirected sampling of maps.

Soft Constraints for Inference with Declarative Knowledge

We develop a likelihood free inference procedure for conditioning a probabilistic model on a predicate. A predicate is a Boolean valued function which expresses a yes/no question about a domain. Our contribution, which we call predicate exchange, constructs a softened predicate which takes value in the unit interval [0, 1] as opposed to a simply true or false. Intuitively, 1 corresponds to true, and a high value (such as 0.999) corresponds to ‘nearly true’ as determined by a distance metric. We define Boolean algebra for soft predicates, such that they can be negated, conjoined and disjoined arbitrarily. A softened predicate can serve as a tractable proxy to a likelihood function for approximate posterior inference. However, to target exact inference, we temper the relaxation by a temperature parameter, and add a accept/reject phase use to replica exchange Markov Chain Mont Carlo, which exchanges states between a sequence of models conditioned on predicates at varying temperatures. We describe a lightweight implementation of predicate exchange that it provides a language independent layer that can be implemented on top of existingn modeling formalisms.

R Packages worth a look

Inventory Analytics and Cost Calculations (inventorize)
Facilitate inventory analysis calculations. The package heavily relies on my studies, the package includes calculations of inventory metrics, profit ca …

Ordinal Outcomes: Generalized Linear Models with the Log Link (lcpm)
An implementation of the Log Cumulative Probability Model (LCPM) and Proportional Probability Model (PPM) for which the Maximum Likelihood Estimates ar …

Adapted Pair Correlation Function (apcf)
The adapted pair correlation function transfers the concept of the pair correlation function from point patterns to patterns of objects of finite size …

If you did not already know

Effect Size google
In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the strength of a phenomenon. Examples of effect sizes are the correlation between two variables, the regression coefficient, the mean difference, or even the risk with which something happens, such as how many people survive after a heart attack for every one person that does not survive. For each type of effect-size, a larger absolute value always indicates a stronger effect. Effect sizes complement statistical hypothesis testing, and play an important role in statistical power analyses, sample size planning, and in meta-analyses. Especially in meta-analysis, where the purpose is to combine multiple effect-sizes, the standard error of effect-size is of critical importance. The S.E. of effect-size is used to weight effect-sizes when combining studies, so that large studies are considered more important than small studies in the analysis. The S.E. of effect-size is calculated differently for each type of effect-size, but generally only requires knowing the study’s sample size (N), or the number of observations in each group (n’s). Reporting effect sizes is considered good practice when presenting empirical research findings in many fields. The reporting of effect sizes facilitates the interpretation of the substantive, as opposed to the statistical, significance of a research result. Effect sizes are particularly prominent in social and medical research. Relative and absolute measures of effect size convey different information, and can be used complementarily. …

Total Distance Multivariance google
We introduce two new measures for the dependence of $n \ge 2$ random variables: `distance multivariance’ and `total distance multivariance’. Both measures are based on the weighted $L^2$-distance of quantities related to the characteristic functions of the underlying random variables. They extend distance covariance (introduced by Szekely, Rizzo and Bakirov) and generalized distance covariance (introduced in part I) from pairs of random variables to $n$-tuplets of random variables. We show that total distance multivariance can be used to detect the independence of $n$ random variables and has a simple finite-sample representation in terms of distance matrices of the sample points, where distance is measured by a continuous negative definite function. Based on our theoretical results, we present a test for independence of multiple random vectors which is consistent against all alternatives. …

Data Transfer Project (DTP) google
The Data Transfer Project was formed in 2017 to create an open-source, service-to-service data portability platform so that all individuals across the web could easily move their data between online service providers whenever they want. The contributors to the Data Transfer Project believe portability and interoperability are central to innovation. Making it easier for individuals to choose among services facilitates competition, empowers individuals to try new services and enables them to choose the offering that best suits their needs.
Data Transfer Project (DTP) is a collaboration of organizations committed to building a common framework with open-source code that can connect any two online service providers, enabling a seamless, direct, user initiated portability of data between the two platforms.
The Data Transfer Project uses services´ existing APIs and authorization mechanisms to access data. It then uses service specific adapters to transfer that data into a common format, and then back into the new service´s API. …

Book Memo: “Adaptive Resonance Theory in Social Media Data Clustering”

Roles, Methodologies, and Applications
Social media data contains our communication and online sharing, mirroring our daily life. This book looks at how we can use and what we can discover from such big data:
•Basic knowledge (data & challenges) on social media analytics
•Clustering as a fundamental technique for unsupervised knowledge discovery and data mining
•A class of neural inspired algorithms, based on adaptive resonance theory (ART), tackling challenges in big social media data clustering
•Step-by-step practices of developing unsupervised machine learning algorithms for real-world applications in social media domain
Adaptive Resonance Theory in Social Media Data Clustering stands on the fundamental breakthrough in cognitive and neural theory, i.e. adaptive resonance theory, which simulates how a brain processes information to perform memory, learning, recognition, and prediction.
It presents initiatives on the mathematical demonstration of ART’s learning mechanisms in clustering, and illustrates how to extend the base ART model to handle the complexity and characteristics of social media data and perform associative analytical tasks.

Document worth reading: “Rethinking the Artificial Neural Networks: A Mesh of Subnets with a Central Mechanism for Storing and Predicting the Data”

The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been originally designed to function like a biological neural network, but does an ANN really work in the same way as a biological neural network? As we know, the human brain holds information in its memory cells, so if the ANNs use the same model as our brains, they should store datasets in a similar manner. The most popular type of ANN architecture is based on a layered structure of neurons, whereas a human brain has trillions of complex interconnections of neurons continuously establishing new connections, updating existing ones, and removing the irrelevant connections across different parts of the brain. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to building ANNs which are truly inspired by the biological network containing a mesh of subnets controlled by a central mechanism. A subnet is a network of neurons that hold the dataset values. We attempt to address the following fundamental questions: (1) What is the architecture of the ANN model? Whether the layered architecture is the most appropriate choice? (2) Whether a neuron is a process or a memory cell? (3) What is the best way of interconnecting neurons and what weight-assignment mechanism should be used? (4) How to incorporate prior knowledge, bias, and generalizations for features extraction and prediction? Our proposed ANN architecture leverages the accuracy on textual data and our experimental findings confirm the effectiveness of our model. We also collaborate with the construction of the ANN model for storing and processing the images. Rethinking the Artificial Neural Networks: A Mesh of Subnets with a Central Mechanism for Storing and Predicting the Data

Document worth reading: “Can Entropy Explain Successor Surprisal Effects in Reading?”

Human reading behavior is sensitive to surprisal: more predictable words tend to be read faster. Unexpectedly, this applies not only to the surprisal of the word that is currently being read, but also to the surprisal of upcoming (successor) words that have not been fixated yet. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that readers can extract lexical information parafoveally. Calling this interpretation into question, Angele et al. (2015) showed that successor effects appear even in contexts in which those successor words are not yet visible. They hypothesized that successor surprisal predicts reading time because it approximates the reader’s uncertainty about upcoming words. We test this hypothesis on a reading time corpus using an LSTM language model, and find that successor surprisal and entropy are independent predictors of reading time. This independence suggests that entropy alone is unlikely to be the full explanation for successor surprisal effects. Can Entropy Explain Successor Surprisal Effects in Reading?