Dive is a tool for interactively exploring up to tens of thousands of multidimensional data points, allowing users to seamlessly switch between a high-level overview and low-level details. Each example is a represented as single item in the visualization and the points can be positioned by faceting/bucketing in multiple dimensions by their feature values. Combining smooth animation and zooming with faceting and filtering, Dive makes it easy to spot patterns and outliers in complex data sets. …

This paper presents a new deep neural network design for salient object detection by maximizing the integration of local and global image context within, around, and beyond the salient objects. Our key idea is to adaptively propagate and aggregate the image context with variable attenuation over the entire feature maps. To achieve this, we design the spatial attenuation context (SAC) module to recurrently translate and aggregate the context features independently with different attenuation factors and then attentively learn the weights to adaptively integrate the aggregated context features. By further embedding the module to process individual layers in a deep network, namely SAC-Net, we can train the network end-to-end and optimize the context features for detecting salient objects. Compared with 22 state-of-the-art methods, experimental results show that our method performs favorably over all the others on six common benchmark data, both quantitatively and visually. …

Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) is important for applications where large scale annotation of representative data is challenging. For semantic segmentation in particular, it helps deploy on real ‘target domain’ data models that are trained on annotated images from a different ‘source domain’, notably a virtual environment. To this end, most previous works consider semantic segmentation as the only mode of supervision for source domain data, while ignoring other, possibly available, information like depth. In this work, we aim at exploiting at best such a privileged information while training the UDA model. We propose a unified depth-aware UDA framework that leverages in several complementary ways the knowledge of dense depth in the source domain. As a result, the performance of the trained semantic segmentation model on the target domain is boosted. Our novel approach indeed achieves state-of-the-art performance on different challenging synthetic-2-real benchmarks. …

This paper focuses on a traditional relation extraction task in the context of limited annotated data and a narrow knowledge domain. We explore this task with a clinical corpus consisting of 200 breast cancer follow-up treatment letters in which 16 distinct types of relations are annotated. We experiment with an approach to extracting typed relations called window-bounded co-occurrence (WBC), which uses an adjustable context window around entity mentions of a relevant type, and compare its performance with a more typical intra-sentential co-occurrence baseline. We further introduce a new bag-of-concepts (BoC) approach to feature engineering based on the state-of-the-art word embeddings and word synonyms. We demonstrate the competitiveness of BoC by comparing with methods of higher complexity, and explore its effectiveness on this small dataset. …

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Big Data Discovery = {Big Data, Data Discovery, Data Science} …

LSTMs are powerful tools for modeling contextual information, as evidenced by their success at the task of language modeling. However, modeling contexts in very high dimensional space can lead to poor generalizability. We introduce the Pyramidal Recurrent Unit (PRU), which enables learning representations in high dimensional space with more generalization power and fewer parameters. PRUs replace the linear transformation in LSTMs with more sophisticated interactions including pyramidal and grouped linear transformations. This architecture gives strong results on word-level language modeling while reducing the number of parameters significantly. In particular, PRU improves the perplexity of a recent state-of-the-art language model Merity et al. (2018) by up to 1.3 points while learning 15-20% fewer parameters. For similar number of model parameters, PRU outperforms all previous RNN models that exploit different gating mechanisms and transformations. We provide a detailed examination of the PRU and its behavior on the language modeling tasks. Our code is open-source and available at https://…/PRU …

Self-paced learning (SPL) mimics the cognitive process of humans, who generally learn from easy samples to hard ones. One key issue in SPL is the training process required for each instance weight depends on the other samples and thus cannot easily be run in a distributed manner in a large-scale dataset. In this paper, we reformulate the self-paced learning problem into a distributed setting and propose a novel Distributed Self-Paced Learning method (DSPL) to handle large-scale datasets. Specifically, both the model and instance weights can be optimized in parallel for each batch based on a consensus alternating direction method of multipliers. We also prove the convergence of our algorithm under mild conditions. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real datasets demonstrate that our approach is superior to those of existing methods. …

In many real-world data analysis tasks, we have different types of data over the same objects or entities, perhaps because the data originate from distinct sources or are based on different terminologies. In order to understand such data, an intuitive approach is to identify the correspondences that exist between these different aspects. This is the motivating principle behind redescription mining, a data analysis task that aims at finding distinct common characterizations of the same objects. …

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Collective intelligence is manifested when multiple agents coherently work in observation, interaction, decision-making and action. In this paper, we define and quantify the intelligence level of heterogeneous agents group with the improved Anytime Universal Intelligence Test(AUIT), based on an extension of the existing evaluation of homogeneous agents group. The relationship of intelligence level with agents composition, group size, spatial complexity and testing time is analyzed. The intelligence level of heterogeneous agents groups is compared with the homogeneous ones to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on collective intelligence. Our work will help to understand the essence of collective intelligence more deeply and reveal the effect of various key factors on group intelligence level. …

Localization is the problem of estimating the location of an autonomous agent from an observation and a map of the environment. Traditional methods of localization, which filter the belief based on the observations, are sub-optimal in the number of steps required, as they do not decide the actions taken by the agent. We propose ‘Active Neural Localizer’, a fully differentiable neural network that learns to localize accurately and efficiently. The proposed model incorporates ideas of traditional filtering-based localization methods, by using a structured belief of the state with multiplicative interactions to propagate belief, and combines it with a policy model to localize accurately while minimizing the number of steps required for localization. Active Neural Localizer is trained end-to-end with reinforcement learning. We use a variety of simulation environments for our experiments which include random 2D mazes, random mazes in the Doom game engine and a photo-realistic environment in the Unreal game engine. The results on the 2D environments show the effectiveness of the learned policy in an idealistic setting while results on the 3D environments demonstrate the model’s capability of learning the policy and perceptual model jointly from raw-pixel based RGB observations. We also show that a model trained on random textures in the Doom environment generalizes well to a photo-realistic office space environment in the Unreal engine. …

Causal Confusion’ Phenomenon: Access to more Information can yield worse Performance. …

Volunteer computing’ is the use of consumer digital devices for high-throughput scientific computing. It can provide large computing capacity at low cost, but presents challenges due to device heterogeneity, unreliability, and churn. BOINC, a widely-used open-source middleware system for volunteer computing, addresses these challenges. We describe its features, architecture, and implementation. …

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Causality-Benchmark is a library developed by IBM Research Haifa for benchmarking algorithms that estimate the causal effect of a treatment on some outcome. The framework includes unlabeled data, labeled data, code for scoring algorithm predictions based on both novel and established metrics. It can benchmark predictions of both population effect size and individual effect size. …

Deep networks have achieved impressive results across a variety of important tasks. However a known weakness is a failure to perform well when evaluated on data which differ from the training distribution, even if these differences are very small, as is the case with adversarial examples. We propose Fortified Networks, a simple transformation of existing networks, which fortifies the hidden layers in a deep network by identifying when the hidden states are off of the data manifold, and maps these hidden states back to parts of the data manifold where the network performs well. Our principal contribution is to show that fortifying these hidden states improves the robustness of deep networks and our experiments (i) demonstrate improved robustness to standard adversarial attacks in both black-box and white-box threat models; (ii) suggest that our improvements are not primarily due to the gradient masking problem and (iii) show the advantage of doing this fortification in the hidden layers instead of the input space. …

Data often comes in the form of a point cloud sampled from an unknown compact subset of Euclidean space. The general goal of geometric inference is then to recover geometric and topological features (e.g., Betti numbers, normals) of this subset from the approximating point cloud data. It appears that the study of distance functions allows one to address many of these questions successfully. However, one of the main limitations of this framework is that it does not cope well with outliers or with background noise. In this paper, we show how to extend the framework of distance functions to overcome this problem. Replacing compact subsets by measures, we introduce a notion of distance function to a probability distribution in R d . These functions share many properties with classical distance functions, which make them suitable for inference purposes. In particular, by considering appropriate level sets of these distance functions, we show that it is possible to reconstruct offsets of sampled shapes with topological guarantees even in the presence of outliers. Moreover, in settings where empirical measures are considered, these functions can be easily evaluated, making them of particular practical interest. …

Bayesian optimization has demonstrated impressive success in finding the optimum location $x^{*}$ and value $f^{*}=f(x^{*})=\max_{x\in\mathcal{X}}f(x)$ of the black-box function $f$. In some applications, however, the optimum value is known in advance and the goal is to find the corresponding optimum location. Existing work in Bayesian optimization (BO) has not effectively exploited the knowledge of $f^{*}$ for optimization. In this paper, we consider a new setting in BO in which the knowledge of the optimum value is available. Our goal is to exploit the knowledge about $f^{*}$ to search for the location $x^{*}$ efficiently. To achieve this goal, we first transform the Gaussian process surrogate using the information about the optimum value. Then, we propose two acquisition functions, called confidence bound minimization and expected regret minimization, which exploit the knowledge about the optimum value to identify the optimum location efficiently. We show that our approaches work both intuitively and quantitatively achieve better performance against standard BO methods. We demonstrate real applications in tuning a deep reinforcement learning algorithm on the CartPole problem and XGBoost on Skin Segmentation dataset in which the optimum values are publicly available. …

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This study proposes a novel deep learning model, called IITNet, to learn intra- and inter-epoch temporal contexts from a raw single channel electroencephalogram (EEG) for automatic sleep stage scoring. When sleep experts identify the sleep stage of a 30-second PSG data called an epoch, they investigate the sleep-related events such as sleep spindles, K-complex, and frequency components from local segments of an epoch (sub-epoch) and consider the relations between sleep-related events of successive epochs to follow the transition rules. Inspired by this, IITNet learns how to encode sub-epoch into representative feature via a deep residual network, then captures contextual information in the sequence of representative features via BiLSTM. Thus, IITNet can extract features in sub-epoch level and consider temporal context not only between epochs but also in an epoch. IITNet is an end-to-end architecture and does not need any preprocessing, handcrafted feature design, balanced sampling, pre-training, or fine-tuning. Our model was trained and evaluated in Sleep-EDF and MASS datasets and outperformed other state-of-the-art results on both the datasets with the overall accuracy (ACC) of 84.0% and 86.6%, macro F1-score (MF1) of 77.7 and 80.8, and Cohen’s kappa of 0.78 and 0.80 in Sleep-EDF and MASS, respectively. …

In high-dimensional graph learning problems, some topological properties of the graph, such as bounded node degree or tree structure, are typically assumed to hold so that the sample complexity of recovering the graph structure can be reduced. With bounded degree or separability assumptions, quantified by a measure $k$, a $p$-dimensional Gaussian graphical model (GGM) can be learnt with sample complexity $\Omega (k \: \text{log} \: p)$. Our work in this paper aims to do away with these assumptions by introducing an algorithm that can identify whether a GGM indeed has these topological properties without any initial topological assumptions. We show that we can check whether a GGM has node degree bounded by $k$ with sample complexity $\Omega (k \: \text{log} \: p)$. More generally, we introduce the notion of a strongly K-separable GGM, and show that our algorithm can decide whether a GGM is strongly $k$-separable or not, with sample complexity $\Omega (k \: \text{log} \: p)$. We introduce the notion of a generalized feedback vertex set (FVS), an extension of the typical FVS, and show that we can use this identification technique to learn GGMs with generalized FVSs. …

Recent studies on medical image synthesis reported promising results using generative adversarial networks, mostly focusing on one-to-one cross-modality synthesis. Naturally, the idea arises that a target modality would benefit from multi-modal input. Synthesizing MR imaging sequences is highly attractive for clinical practice, as often single sequences are missing or of poor quality (e.g. due to motion). However, existing methods fail to scale up to image volumes with high numbers of modalities and extensive non-aligned volumes, facing common draw-backs of complex multi-modal imaging sequences. To address these limitations, we propose a novel, scalable and multi-modal approach called DiamondGAN. Our model is capable of performing flexible non-aligned cross-modality synthesis and data infill, when given multiple modalities or any of their arbitrary subsets. It learns structured information using non-aligned input modalities in an end-to-end fashion. We synthesize two MRI sequences with clinical relevance (i.e., double inversion recovery (DIR) and contrast-enhanced T1 (T1-c)), which are reconstructed from three common MRI sequences. In addition, we perform multi-rater visual evaluation experiment and find that trained radiologists are unable to distinguish our synthetic DIR images from real ones. …

Proposed by Romano, Elad, and Milanfar, is powerful new image-recovery framework that aims to construct an explicit regularization objective from a plug-in image-denoising function. Evidence suggests that the RED algorithms are, indeed, state-of-the-art. However, a closer inspection suggests that explicit regularization may not explain the workings of these algorithms.

Regularization by Denoising: Clarifications and New Interpretations …

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Sentence Boundary Detection (SBD) has been a major research topic since Automatic Speech Recognition transcripts have been used for further Natural Language Processing tasks like Part of Speech Tagging, Question Answering or Automatic Summarization. But what about evaluation? Do standard evaluation metrics like precision, recall, F-score or classification error; and more important, evaluating an automatic system against a unique reference is enough to conclude how well a SBD system is performing given the final application of the transcript? In this paper we propose Window-based Sentence Boundary Evaluation (WiSeBE), a semi-supervised metric for evaluating Sentence Boundary Detection systems based on multi-reference (dis)agreement. We evaluate and compare the performance of different SBD systems over a set of Youtube transcripts using WiSeBE and standard metrics. This double evaluation gives an understanding of how WiSeBE is a more reliable metric for the SBD task. …

In the context of recent deep clustering studies, discriminative models dominate the literature and report the most competitive performances. These models learn a deep discriminative neural network classifier in which the labels are latent. Typically, they use multinomial logistic regression posteriors and parameter regularization, as is very common in supervised learning. It is generally acknowledged that discriminative objective functions (e.g., those based on the mutual information or the KL divergence) are more flexible than generative approaches (e.g., K-means) in the sense that they make fewer assumptions about the data distributions and, typically, yield much better unsupervised deep learning results. On the surface, several recent discriminative models may seem unrelated to K-means. This study shows that these models are, in fact, equivalent to K-means under mild conditions and common posterior models and parameter regularization. We prove that, for the commonly used logistic regression posteriors, maximizing the $L_2$ regularized mutual information via an approximate alternating direction method (ADM) is equivalent to a soft and regularized K-means loss. Our theoretical analysis not only connects directly several recent state-of-the-art discriminative models to K-means, but also leads to a new soft and regularized deep K-means algorithm, which yields competitive performance on several image clustering benchmarks. …

We demonstrate MLOG, a high-level language that integrates machine learning into data management systems. Unlike existing machine learning frameworks (e.g., TensorFlow, Theano, and Caffe), MLOG is declarative, in the sense that the system manages all data movement, data persistency, and machine-learning related optimizations (such as data batching) automatically. Our interactive demonstration will show audience how this is achieved based on the novel notion of tensoral views (TViews), which are similar to relational views but operate over tensors with linear algebra. With MLOG, users can succinctly specify not only simple models such as SVM (in just two lines), but also sophisticated deep learning models that are not supported by existing in-database analytics systems (e.g., MADlib, PAL, and SciDB), as a series of cascaded TViews. Given the declarative nature of MLOG, we further demonstrate how query/program optimization techniques can be leveraged to translate MLOG programs into native TensorFlow programs. The performance of the automatically generated Tensor- Flow programs is comparable to that of hand-optimized ones. …

This paper presents a hardness-aware deep metric learning (HDML) framework. Most previous deep metric learning methods employ the hard negative mining strategy to alleviate the lack of informative samples for training. However, this mining strategy only utilizes a subset of training data, which may not be enough to characterize the global geometry of the embedding space comprehensively. To address this problem, we perform linear interpolation on embeddings to adaptively manipulate their hard levels and generate corresponding label-preserving synthetics for recycled training, so that information buried in all samples can be fully exploited and the metric is always challenged with proper difficulty. Our method achieves very competitive performance on the widely used CUB-200-2011, Cars196, and Stanford Online Products datasets. …

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Although the fully-connected attention-based model Transformer has achieved great successes on many NLP tasks, it has heavy structure and usually requires large training data. In this paper, we present the Star-Transformer, an alternative and light-weighted model of the Transformer. To reduce the model complexity, we replace the fully-connected structure with a star-shaped structure, in which every two non-adjacent nodes are connected through a shared relay node. Thus, the Star-Transformer has lower complexity than the standard Transformer (from quadratic to linear according to the input length) and preserves the ability to handle with the long-range dependencies. The experiments on four tasks (22 datasets) show the Star-Transformer achieved significant improvements against the standard Transformer for the modestly sized datasets. …

The trade-off between convergence error and communication delays in decentralized stochastic gradient descent~(SGD) is dictated by the sparsity of the inter-worker communication graph. In this paper, we propose MATCHA, a decentralized SGD method where we use matching decomposition sampling of the base graph to parallelize inter-worker information exchange so as to significantly reduce communication delay. At the same time, under standard assumptions for any general topology, in spite of the significant reduction of the communication delay, MATCHA maintains the same convergence rate as that of the state-of-the-art in terms of epochs. Experiments on a suite of datasets and deep neural networks validate the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme as far as reducing communication delays is concerned. …

Semantic segmentation generates comprehensive understanding of scenes at a semantic level through densely predicting the category for each pixel. High-level features from Deep Convolutional Neural Networks already demonstrate their effectiveness in semantic segmentation tasks, however the coarse resolution of high-level features often leads to inferior results for small/thin objects where detailed information is important but missing. It is natural to consider importing low level features to compensate the lost detailed information in high level representations. Unfortunately, simply combining multi-level features is less effective due to the semantic gap existing among them. In this paper, we propose a new architecture, named Gated Fully Fusion(GFF), to selectively fuse features from multiple levels using gates in a fully connected way. Specifically, features at each level are enhanced by higher-level features with stronger semantics and lower-level features with more details, and gates are used to control the propagation of useful information which significantly reduces the noises during fusion. We achieve the state of the art results on two challenging scene understanding datasets, i.e., 82.3% mIoU on Cityscapes test set and 45.3% mIoU on ADE20K validation set. Codes and the trained models will be made publicly available. …

We consider the Kalman-filtering problem with multiple sensors which are connected through a communication network. If all measurements are delivered to one place called fusion center and processed together, we call the process centralized Kalman-filtering (CKF). When there is no fusion center, each sensor can also solve the problem by using local measurements and exchanging information with its neighboring sensors, which is called distributed Kalman-filtering (DKF). Noting that CKF problem is a maximum likelihood estimation problem, which is a quadratic optimization problem, we reformulate DKF problem as a consensus optimization problem, resulting in that DKF problem can be solved by many existing distributed optimization algorithms. A new DKF algorithm employing the distributed dual ascent method is provided and its performance is evaluated through numerical experiments. …

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We take advantage of our autonomous driving platform Annieway to develop novel challenging real-world computer vision benchmarks. Our tasks of interest are: stereo, optical flow, visual odometry, 3D object detection and 3D tracking. For this purpose, we equipped a standard station wagon with two high-resolution color and grayscale video cameras. Accurate ground truth is provided by a Velodyne laser scanner and a GPS localization system. Our datsets are captured by driving around the mid-size city of Karlsruhe, in rural areas and on highways. Up to 15 cars and 30 pedestrians are visible per image. Besides providing all data in raw format, we extract benchmarks for each task. For each of our benchmarks, we also provide an evaluation metric and this evaluation website. Preliminary experiments show that methods ranking high on established benchmarks such as Middlebury perform below average when being moved outside the laboratory to the real world. Our goal is to reduce this bias and complement existing benchmarks by providing real-world benchmarks with novel difficulties to the community. …

Sequences play an important role in many applications and systems. Discovering sequences with desired properties has long been an interesting intellectual pursuit. This paper puts forth a new paradigm, AlphaSeq, to discover desired sequences algorithmically using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques. AlphaSeq treats the sequence discovery problem as an episodic symbol-filling game, in which a player fills symbols in the vacant positions of a sequence set sequentially during an episode of the game. Each episode ends with a completely-filled sequence set, upon which a reward is given based on the desirability of the sequence set. AlphaSeq models the game as a Markov Decision Process (MDP), and adapts the DRL framework of AlphaGo to solve the MDP. Sequences discovered improve progressively as AlphaSeq, starting as a novice, learns to become an expert game player through many episodes of game playing. Compared with traditional sequence construction by mathematical tools, AlphaSeq is particularly suitable for problems with complex objectives intractable to mathematical analysis. We demonstrate the searching capabilities of AlphaSeq in two applications: 1) AlphaSeq successfully rediscovers a set of ideal complementary codes that can zero-force all potential interferences in multi-carrier CDMA systems. 2) AlphaSeq discovers new sequences that triple the signal-to-interference ratio — benchmarked against the well-known Legendre sequence — of a mismatched filter estimator in pulse compression radar systems. …

This paper addresses the problem of unsupervised domain adaption from theoretical and algorithmic perspectives. Existing domain adaptation theories naturally imply minimax optimization algorithms, which connect well with the adversarial-learning based domain adaptation methods. However, several disconnections still form the gap between theory and algorithm. We extend previous theories (Ben-David et al., 2010; Mansour et al., 2009c) to multiclass classification in domain adaptation, where classifiers based on scoring functions and margin loss are standard algorithmic choices. We introduce a novel measurement, margin disparity discrepancy, that is tailored both to distribution comparison with asymmetric margin loss, and to minimax optimization for easier training. Using this discrepancy, we derive new generalization bounds in terms of Rademacher complexity. Our theory can be seamlessly transformed into an adversarial learning algorithm for domain adaptation, successfully bridging the gap between theory and algorithm. A series of empirical studies show that our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art accuracies on challenging domain adaptation tasks. …

The intensive computation and memory requirements of generative adversarial neural networks (GANs) hinder its real-world deployment on edge devices such as smartphones. Despite the success in model reduction of CNNs, neural network quantization methods have not yet been studied on GANs, which are mainly faced with the issues of both the effectiveness of quantization algorithms and the instability of training GAN models. In this paper, we start with an extensive study on applying existing successful methods to quantize GANs. Our observation reveals that none of them generates samples with reasonable quality because of the underrepresentation of quantized values in model weights, and the generator and discriminator networks show different sensitivities upon quantization methods. Motivated by these observations, we develop a novel quantization method for GANs based on EM algorithms, named as QGAN. We also propose a multi-precision algorithm to help find the optimal number of bits of quantized GAN models in conjunction with corresponding result qualities. Experiments on CIFAR-10 and CelebA show that QGAN can quantize GANs to even 1-bit or 2-bit representations with results of quality comparable to original models. …

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We propose a directed acyclic hypergraph framework for a probabilistic graphical model that we call Bayesian hypergraphs. The space of directed acyclic hypergraphs is much larger than the space of chain graphs. Hence Bayesian hypergraphs can model much finer factorizations than Bayesian networks or LWF chain graphs and provide simpler and more computationally efficient procedures for factorizations and interventions. Bayesian hypergraphs also allow a modeler to represent causal patterns of interaction such as Noisy-OR graphically (without additional annotations). We introduce global, local and pairwise Markov properties of Bayesian hypergraphs and prove under which conditions they are equivalent. We define a projection operator, called shadow, that maps Bayesian hypergraphs to chain graphs, and show that the Markov properties of a Bayesian hypergraph are equivalent to those of its corresponding chain graph. We extend the causal interpretation of LWF chain graphs to Bayesian hypergraphs and provide corresponding formulas and a graphical criterion for intervention. …

Though deep reinforcement learning has led to breakthroughs in many difficult domains, these successes have required an ever-increasing number of samples. As state-of-the-art reinforcement learning (RL) systems require an exponentially increasing number of samples, their development is restricted to a continually shrinking segment of the AI community. Likewise, many of these systems cannot be applied to real-world problems, where environment samples are expensive. Resolution of these limitations requires new, sample-efficient methods. To facilitate research in this direction, we introduce the MineRL Competition on Sample Efficient Reinforcement Learning using Human Priors. The primary goal of the competition is to foster the development of algorithms which can efficiently leverage human demonstrations to drastically reduce the number of samples needed to solve complex, hierarchical, and sparse environments. To that end, we introduce: (1) the Minecraft ObtainDiamond task, a sequential decision making environment requiring long-term planning, hierarchical control, and efficient exploration methods; and (2) the MineRL-v0 dataset, a large-scale collection of over 60 million state-action pairs of human demonstrations that can be resimulated into embodied trajectories with arbitrary modifications to game state and visuals. Participants will compete to develop systems which solve the ObtainDiamond task with a limited number of samples from the environment simulator, Malmo. The competition is structured into two rounds in which competitors are provided several paired versions of the dataset and environment with different game textures. At the end of each round, competitors will submit containerized versions of their learning algorithms and they will then be trained/evaluated from scratch on a hold-out dataset-environment pair for a total of 4-days on a prespecified hardware platform. …

In critical applications of anomaly detection including computer security and fraud prevention, the anomaly detector must be configurable by the analyst to minimize the effort on false positives. One important way to configure the anomaly detector is by providing true labels for a few instances. We study the problem of label-efficient active learning to automatically tune anomaly detection ensembles and make four main contributions. First, we present an important insight into how anomaly detector ensembles are naturally suited for active learning. This insight allows us to relate the greedy querying strategy to uncertainty sampling, with implications for label-efficiency. Second, we present a novel formalism called compact description to describe the discovered anomalies and show that it can also be employed to improve the diversity of the instances presented to the analyst without loss in the anomaly discovery rate. Third, we present a novel data drift detection algorithm that not only detects the drift robustly, but also allows us to take corrective actions to adapt the detector in a principled manner. Fourth, we present extensive experiments to evaluate our insights and algorithms in both batch and streaming settings. Our results show that in addition to discovering significantly more anomalies than state-of-the-art unsupervised baselines, our active learning algorithms under the streaming-data setup are competitive with the batch setup. …

Currently RDF data is stored and sent in very verbose textual serialization formats that waste a lot of bandwidth and are expensive to parse and index. If RDF is meant to be machine understandable, why not use an appropriate format for that? HDT (Header, Dictionary, Triples) is a compact data structure and binary serialization format for RDF that keeps big datasets compressed to save space while maintaining search and browse operations without prior decompression. This makes it an ideal format for storing and sharing RDF datasets on the Web. …

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Coded computation techniques provide robustness against straggling servers in distributed computing, with the following limitations: First, they increase decoding complexity. Second, they ignore computations carried out by straggling servers; and they are typically designed to recover the full gradient, and thus, cannot provide a balance between the accuracy of the gradient and per-iteration completion time. Here we introduce a hybrid approach, called coded partial gradient computation (CPGC), that benefits from the advantages of both coded and uncoded computation schemes, and reduces both the computation time and decoding complexity. …

Gibbs sampling is a widely used Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for numerically approximating integrals of interest in Bayesian statistics and other mathematical sciences. It is widely believed that MCMC methods do not extend easily to parallel implementations, as their inherently sequential nature incurs a large synchronization cost. This means that new solutions are needed to bring Bayesian analysis fully into the era of large-scale computation. In this paper, we present a novel scheme – Asynchronous Distributed Gibbs (ADG) sampling – that allows us to perform MCMC in a parallel fashion with no synchronization or locking, avoiding the typical performance bottlenecks of parallel algorithms. Our method is especially attractive in settings, such as hierarchical random-effects modeling in which each observation has its own random effect, where the problem dimension grows with the sample size. We prove convergence under some basic regularity conditions, and discuss the proof for similar parallelization schemes for other iterative algorithms. We provide three examples that illustrate some of the algorithm’s properties with respect to scaling. Because our hardware resources are bounded, we have not yet found a limit to the algorithm’s scaling, and thus its true capabilities remain unknown. …

Quantitative reasoning is an important component of reasoning that any intelligent natural language understanding system can reasonably be expected to handle. We present EQUATE (Evaluating Quantitative Understanding Aptitude in Textual Entailment), a new dataset to evaluate the ability of models to reason with quantities in textual entailment (including not only arithmetic and algebraic computation, but also other phenomena such as range comparisons and verbal reasoning with quantities). The average performance of 7 published textual entailment models on EQUATE does not exceed a majority class baseline, indicating that current models do not implicitly learn to reason with quantities. We propose a new baseline Q-REAS that manipulates quantities symbolically, achieving some success on numerical reasoning, but struggling at more verbal aspects of the task. We hope our evaluation framework will support the development of new models of quantitative reasoning in language understanding. …

One of the key challenges in predictive maintenance is to predict the impending downtime of an equipment with a reasonable prediction horizon so that countermeasures can be put in place. Classically, this problem has been posed in two different ways which are typically solved independently: (1) Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation as a long-term prediction task to estimate how much time is left in the useful life of the equipment and (2) Failure prediction (FP) as a short-term prediction task to assess the probability of a failure within a pre-specified time window. As these two tasks are related, performing them separately is sub-optimal and might results in inconsistent predictions for the same equipment. In order to alleviate these issues, we propose two methods: Deep Weibull model (DW-RNN) and multi-task learning (MTL-RNN). DW-RNN is able to learn the underlying failure dynamics by fitting Weibull distribution parameters using a deep neural network, learned with a survival likelihood, without training directly on each task. While DW-RNN makes an explicit assumption on the data distribution, MTL-RNN exploits the implicit relationship between the long-term RUL and short-term FP tasks to learn the underlying distribution. Additionally, both our methods can leverage the non-failed equipment data for RUL estimation. We demonstrate that our methods consistently outperform baseline RUL methods that can be used for FP while producing consistent results for RUL and FP. We also show that our methods perform at par with baselines trained on the objectives optimized for either of the two tasks. …

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