**Probabilistic Robustness**

Neural networks are becoming increasingly prevalent in software, and it is therefore important to be able to verify their behavior. Because verifying the correctness of neural networks is extremely challenging, it is common to focus on the verification of other properties of these systems. One important property, in particular, is robustness. Most existing definitions of robustness, however, focus on the worst-case scenario where the inputs are adversarial. Such notions of robustness are too strong, and unlikely to be satisfied by-and verifiable for-practical neural networks. Observing that real-world inputs to neural networks are drawn from non-adversarial probability distributions, we propose a novel notion of robustness: probabilistic robustness, which requires the neural network to be robust with at least $(1 – \epsilon)$ probability with respect to the input distribution. This probabilistic approach is practical and provides a principled way of estimating the robustness of a neural network. We also present an algorithm, based on abstract interpretation and importance sampling, for checking whether a neural network is probabilistically robust. Our algorithm uses abstract interpretation to approximate the behavior of a neural network and compute an overapproximation of the input regions that violate robustness. It then uses importance sampling to counter the effect of such overapproximation and compute an accurate estimate of the probability that the neural network violates the robustness property. … **Pumpout**

It is challenging to train deep neural networks robustly on the industrial-level data, since labels of such data are heavily noisy, and their label generation processes are normally agnostic. To handle these issues, by using the memorization effects of deep neural networks, we may train deep neural networks on the whole dataset only the first few iterations. Then, we may employ early stopping or the small-loss trick to train them on selected instances. However, in such training procedures, deep neural networks inevitably memorize some noisy labels, which will degrade their generalization. In this paper, we propose a meta algorithm called Pumpout to overcome the problem of memorizing noisy labels. By using scaled stochastic gradient ascent, Pumpout actively squeezes out the negative effects of noisy labels from the training model, instead of passively forgetting these effects. We leverage Pumpout to upgrade two representative methods: MentorNet and Backward Correction. Empirical results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that Pumpout can significantly improve the robustness of representative methods. … **Refutation Complexity**

The sample complexity of learning a Boolean-valued function class is precisely characterized by its Rademacher complexity. This has little bearing, however, on the sample complexity of \emph{efficient} agnostic learning. We introduce \emph{refutation complexity}, a natural computational analog of Rademacher complexity of a Boolean concept class and show that it exactly characterizes the sample complexity of \emph{efficient} agnostic learning. Informally, refutation complexity of a class $\mathcal{C}$ is the minimum number of example-label pairs required to efficiently distinguish between the case that the labels correlate with the evaluation of some member of $\mathcal{C}$ (\emph{structure}) and the case where the labels are i.i.d. Rademacher random variables (\emph{noise}). The easy direction of this relationship was implicitly used in the recent framework for improper PAC learning lower bounds of Daniely and co-authors via connections to the hardness of refuting random constraint satisfaction problems. Our work can be seen as making the relationship between agnostic learning and refutation implicit in their work into an explicit equivalence. In a recent, independent work, Salil Vadhan discovered a similar relationship between refutation and PAC-learning in the realizable (i.e. noiseless) case. … **GraphSE^2**

In this paper, we propose GraphSE$^2$, an encrypted graph database for online social network services to address massive data breaches. GraphSE$^2$ preserves the functionality of social search, a key enabler for quality social network services, where social search queries are conducted on a large-scale social graph and meanwhile perform set and computational operations on user-generated contents. To enable efficient privacy-preserving social search, GraphSE$^2$ provides an encrypted structural data model to facilitate parallel and encrypted graph data access. It is also designed to decompose complex social search queries into atomic operations and realise them via interchangeable protocols in a fast and scalable manner. We build GraphSE$^2$ with various queries supported in the Facebook graph search engine and implement a full-fledged prototype. Extensive evaluations on Azure Cloud demonstrate that GraphSE$^2$ is practical for querying a social graph with a million of users. …

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