Zelig |
A framework that brings together an abundance of common statistical models found across packages into a unified interface, and provides a common architecture for estimation and interpretation, as well as bridging functions to absorb increasingly more models into the collective library. Zelig allows each individual package, for each statistical model, to be accessed by a common uniformly structured call and set of arguments. Moreover, Zelig automates all the surrounding building blocks of a statistical work-flow–procedures and algorithms that may be essential to one user’s application but which the original package developer did not use in their own research and might not themselves support. These include bootstrapping, jackknifing, and re-weighting of data. In particular, Zelig automatically generates predicted and simulated quantities of interest (such as relative risk ratios, average treatment effects, first differences and predicted and expected values) to interpret and visualize complex models. zeligverse,Zelig |

ZenLDA |
This paper presents our recent efforts, zenLDA, an efficient and scalable Collapsed Gibbs Sampling system for Latent Dirichlet Allocation training, which is thought to be challenging that both data parallelism and model parallelism are required because of the Big sampling data with up to billions of documents and Big model size with up to trillions of parameters. zenLDA combines both algorithm level improvements and system level optimizations. It first presents a novel CGS algorithm that balances the time complexity, model accuracy and parallelization flexibility. The input corpus in zenLDA is represented as a directed graph and model parameters are annotated as the corresponding vertex attributes. The distributed training is parallelized by partitioning the graph that in each iteration it first applies CGS step for all partitions in parallel, followed by synchronizing the computed model each other. In this way, both data parallelism and model parallelism are achieved by converting them to graph parallelism. We revisited the tradeoff between system efficiency and model accuracy and presented approximations such as unsynchronized model, sparse model initialization and ‘converged’ token exclusion. zenLDA is built on GraphX in Spark that provides distributed data abstraction (RDD) and expressive APIs to simplify the programming efforts and simultaneously hides the system complexities. This enables us to implement other CGS algorithm with a few lines of code change. To better fit in distributed data-parallel framework and achieve comparable performance with contemporary systems, we also presented several system level optimizations to push the performance limit. zenLDA was evaluated it against web-scale corpus, and the result indicates that zenLDA can achieve about much better performance than other CGS algorithm we implemented, and simultaneously achieve better model accuracy. |

Zero Inflation |
In statistics, a zero-inflated model is a statistical model based on a zero-inflated probability distribution, i.e. a distribution that allows for frequent zero-valued observations. The zero-inflated Poisson model concerns a random event containing excess zero-count data in unit time. For example, the number of insurance claims within a population for a certain type of risk would be zero-inflated by those people who have not taken out insurance against the risk and thus are unable to claim. The zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model employs two components that correspond to two zero generating processes. The first process is governed by a binary distribution that generates structural zeros. The second process is governed by a Poisson distribution that generates counts, some of which may be zero. |

Zero/One Inflated Beta Regression( ZOIB) |
A general class of regression models for continuous proportions when the data contain zeros or ones. The proposed class of models assumes that the response variable has a mixed continuous-discrete distribution with probability mass at zero or one. The beta distribution is used to describe the continuous component of the model, since its density has a wide range of different shapes depending on the values of the two parameters that index the distribution. We use a suitable parameterization of the beta law in terms of its mean and a precision parameter. The parameters of the mixture distribution are modeled as functions of regression parameters. ➚ “Beta Regression” zoib |

Zeros Ones Inflated Proportional |
The ZOIP distribution (Zeros Ones Inflated Proportional) is a proportional data distribution inflated with zeros and/or ones, this distribution is defined on the most known proportional data distributions, the beta and simplex distribution, Jørgensen and Barndorff-Nielsen (1991) <doi:10.1016/0047-259X(91)90008-P>, also allows it to have different parameterizations of the beta distribution, Ferrari and Cribari-Neto (2004) <doi:10.1080/0266476042000214501>, Rigby and Stasinopoulos (2005) <doi:10.18637/jss.v023.i07>. The ZOIP distribution has four parameters, two of which correspond to the proportion of zeros and ones, and the other two correspond to the distribution of the proportional data of your choice. The ‘ZOIP’ package allows adjustments of regression models for fixed and mixed effects for proportional data inflated with zeros and/or ones. ZOIP |

Zero-Shot Detection( ZSD) |
Current Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL) approaches are restricted to recognition of a single dominant unseen object category in a test image. We hypothesize that this setting is ill-suited for real-world applications where unseen objects appear only as a part of a complex scene, warranting both the `recognition’ and `localization’ of an unseen category. To address this limitation, we introduce a new \emph{`Zero-Shot Detection’} (ZSD) problem setting, which aims at simultaneously recognizing and locating object instances belonging to novel categories without any training examples. We also propose a new experimental protocol for ZSD based on the highly challenging ILSVRC dataset, adhering to practical issues, e.g., the rarity of unseen objects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first end-to-end deep network for ZSD that jointly models the interplay between visual and semantic domain information. To overcome the noise in the automatically derived semantic descriptions, we utilize the concept of meta-classes to design an original loss function that achieves synergy between max-margin class separation and semantic space clustering. Furthermore, we present a baseline approach extended from recognition to detection setting. Our extensive experiments show significant performance boost over the baseline on the imperative yet difficult ZSD problem. |

Zero-Shot Learning( ZSL) |
Zero-shot learning (ZSL) is a challenging task aiming at recognizing novel classes without any training instances. Zero-Shot Learning by Generating Pseudo Feature Representations |

Z-Forcing |
Many efforts have been devoted to training generative latent variable models with autoregressive decoders, such as recurrent neural networks (RNN). Stochastic recurrent models have been successful in capturing the variability observed in natural sequential data such as speech. We unify successful ideas from recently proposed architectures into a stochastic recurrent model: each step in the sequence is associated with a latent variable that is used to condition the recurrent dynamics for future steps. Training is performed with amortized variational inference where the approximate posterior is augmented with a RNN that runs backward through the sequence. In addition to maximizing the variational lower bound, we ease training of the latent variables by adding an auxiliary cost which forces them to reconstruct the state of the backward recurrent network. This provides the latent variables with a task-independent objective that enhances the performance of the overall model. We found this strategy to perform better than alternative approaches such as KL annealing. Although being conceptually simple, our model achieves state-of-the-art results on standard speech benchmarks such as TIMIT and Blizzard and competitive performance on sequential MNIST. Finally, we apply our model to language modeling on the IMDB dataset where the auxiliary cost helps in learning interpretable latent variables. Source Code: \url{https://…/zforcing_nips17} |

ZhuSuan |
In this paper we introduce ZhuSuan, a python probabilistic programming library for Bayesian deep learning, which conjoins the complimentary advantages of Bayesian methods and deep learning. ZhuSuan is built upon Tensorflow. Unlike existing deep learning libraries, which are mainly designed for deterministic neural networks and supervised tasks, ZhuSuan is featured for its deep root into Bayesian inference, thus supporting various kinds of probabilistic models, including both the traditional hierarchical Bayesian models and recent deep generative models. We use running examples to illustrate the probabilistic programming on ZhuSuan, including Bayesian logistic regression, variational auto-encoders, deep sigmoid belief networks and Bayesian recurrent neural networks. |

Zigzag Learning |
This paper addresses weakly supervised object detection with only image-level supervision at training stage. Previous approaches train detection models with entire images all at once, making the models prone to being trapped in sub-optimums due to the introduced false positive examples. Unlike them, we propose a zigzag learning strategy to simultaneously discover reliable object instances and prevent the model from overfitting initial seeds. Towards this goal, we first develop a criterion named mean Energy Accumulation Scores (mEAS) to automatically measure and rank localization difficulty of an image containing the target object, and accordingly learn the detector progressively by feeding examples with increasing difficulty. In this way, the model can be well prepared by training on easy examples for learning from more difficult ones and thus gain a stronger detection ability more efficiently. Furthermore, we introduce a novel masking regularization strategy over the high level convolutional feature maps to avoid overfitting initial samples. These two modules formulate a zigzag learning process, where progressive learning endeavors to discover reliable object instances, and masking regularization increases the difficulty of finding object instances properly. We achieve 47.6% mAP on PASCAL VOC 2007, surpassing the state-of-the-arts by a large margin. |

Zig-Zag Sampler |
RZigZag |

Zipf’s Law |
Zipf’s law, an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics, refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law probability distributions. |

ZNN |
Convolutional networks (ConvNets) have become a popular approach to computer vision. It is important to accelerate ConvNet training, which is computationally costly. We propose a novel parallel algorithm based on decomposition into a set of tasks, most of which are convolutions or FFTs. Applying Brent’s theorem to the task dependency graph implies that linear speedup with the number of processors is attainable within the PRAM model of parallel computation, for wide network architectures. To attain such performance on real shared-memory machines, our algorithm computes convolutions converging on the same node of the network with temporal locality to reduce cache misses, and sums the convergent convolution outputs via an almost wait-free concurrent method to reduce time spent in critical sections. We implement the algorithm with a publicly available software package called ZNN. Benchmarking with multi-core CPUs shows that ZNN can attain speedup roughly equal to the number of physical cores. We also show that ZNN can attain over 90x speedup on a many-core CPU (Xeon Phi Knights Corner). These speedups are achieved for network architectures with widths that are in common use. The task parallelism of the ZNN algorithm is suited to CPUs, while the SIMD parallelism of previous algorithms is compatible with GPUs. Through examples, we show that ZNN can be either faster or slower than certain GPU implementations depending on specifics of the network architecture, kernel sizes, and density and size of the output patch. ZNN may be less costly to develop and maintain, due to the relative ease of general-purpose CPU programming. |

Zolotarev Distance |
In this paper the concept of a metric in the space of random variables defined on a probability space is introduced. The principle of three stages in the study of approximation problems is formulated, in particular problems of approximating distributions. Various facts connected with the use of metrics in these three stages are presented and proved. In the second part of the paper a series of results is introduced which are related to stability problems in characterizing distributions and to problems of estimating the remainder terms in limiting approximations of distributions of sums of independent random variables. Rate of convergence to alpha stable law using Zolotarev distance : technical report |

zoNNscan |
The training of deep neural network classifiers results in decision boundaries which geometry is still not well understood. This is in direct relation with classification problems such as so called adversarial examples. We introduce zoNNscan, an index that is intended to inform on the boundary uncertainty (in terms of the presence of other classes) around one given input datapoint. It is based on confidence entropy, and is implemented through sampling in the multidimensional ball surrounding that input. We detail the zoNNscan index, give an algorithm for approximating it, and finally illustrate its benefits on four applications, including two important problems for the adoption of deep networks in critical systems: adversarial examples and corner case inputs. We highlight that zoNNscan exhibits significantly higher values than for standard inputs in those two problem classes. |

Zoom-Net |
Recognizing visual relationships <subject-predicate-object> among any pair of localized objects is pivotal for image understanding. Previous studies have shown remarkable progress in exploiting linguistic priors or external textual information to improve the performance. In this work, we investigate an orthogonal perspective based on feature interactions. We show that by encouraging deep message propagation and interactions between local object features and global predicate features, one can achieve compelling performance in recognizing complex relationships without using any linguistic priors. To this end, we present two new pooling cells to encourage feature interactions: (i) Contrastive ROI Pooling Cell, which has a unique deROI pooling that inversely pools local object features to the corresponding area of global predicate features. (ii) Pyramid ROI Pooling Cell, which broadcasts global predicate features to reinforce local object features.The two cells constitute a Spatiality-Context-Appearance Module (SCA-M), which can be further stacked consecutively to form our final Zoom-Net.We further shed light on how one could resolve ambiguous and noisy object and predicate annotations by Intra-Hierarchical trees (IH-tree). Extensive experiments conducted on Visual Genome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our feature-oriented approach compared to state-of-the-art methods (Acc@1 11.42% from 8.16%) that depend on explicit modeling of linguistic interactions. We further show that SCA-M can be incorporated seamlessly into existing approaches to improve the performance by a large margin. The source code will be released on https://…/ZoomNet. |

Z-Score |
In statistics, the standard score is the (signed) number of standard deviations an observation or datum is above the mean. Thus, a positive standard score represents a datum above the mean, while a negative standard score represents a datum below the mean. It is a dimensionless quantity obtained by subtracting the population mean from an individual raw score and then dividing the difference by the population standard deviation. This conversion process is called standardizing or normalizing (however, “normalizing” can refer to many types of ratios; see normalization (statistics) for more). |

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