Understanding how to engage users is a critical question in many applications. Previous research has shown that unexpected or astonishing events can attract user attention, leading to positive outcomes such as engagement and learning. In this work, we investigate the similarity and differences in how people and algorithms rank the surprisingness of facts. Our crowdsourcing study, involving 106 participants, shows that computational models of surprise can be used to artificially induce surprise in humans. Human Perception of Surprise: A User Study
Deep neural networks (DNNs) transform stimuli across multiple processing stages to produce representations that can be used to solve complex tasks, such as object recognition in images. However, a full understanding of how they achieve this remains elusive. The complexity of biological neural networks substantially exceeds the complexity of DNNs, making it even more challenging to understand the representations that they learn. Thus, both machine learning and computational neuroscience are faced with a shared challenge: how can we analyze their representations in order to understand how they solve complex tasks? We review how data-analysis concepts and techniques developed by computational neuroscientists can be useful for analyzing representations in DNNs, and in turn, how recently developed techniques for analysis of DNNs can be useful for understanding representations in biological neural networks. We explore opportunities for synergy between the two fields, such as the use of DNNs as in-silico model systems for neuroscience, and how this synergy can lead to new hypotheses about the operating principles of biological neural networks. Analyzing biological and artificial neural networks: challenges with opportunities for synergy?
This survey paper discusses different forms of malicious techniques that can affect how an information retrieval model retrieves documents for a query and their remedies. A Survey on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web
This is a detailed tutorial paper which explains the Fisher discriminant Analysis (FDA) and kernel FDA. We start with projection and reconstruction. Then, one- and multi-dimensional FDA subspaces are covered. Scatters in two- and then multi-classes are explained in FDA. Then, we discuss on the rank of the scatters and the dimensionality of the subspace. A real-life example is also provided for interpreting FDA. Then, possible singularity of the scatter is discussed to introduce robust FDA. PCA and FDA directions are also compared. We also prove that FDA and linear discriminant analysis are equivalent. Fisher forest is also introduced as an ensemble of fisher subspaces useful for handling data with different features and dimensionality. Afterwards, kernel FDA is explained for both one- and multi-dimensional subspaces with both two- and multi-classes. Finally, some simulations are performed on AT&T face dataset to illustrate FDA and compare it with PCA. Fisher and Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis: Tutorial
Multivariate spatial data plays an important role in computational science and engineering simulations. The potential features and hidden relationships in multivariate data can assist scientists to gain an in-depth understanding of a scientific process, verify a hypothesis and further discover a new physical or chemical law. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art techniques for multivariate spatial data visualization. We first introduce the basic concept and characteristics of multivariate spatial data, and describe three main tasks in multivariate data visualization: feature classification, fusion visualization, and correlation analysis. Finally, we prospect potential research topics for multivariate data visualization according to the current research. Multivariate Spatial Data Visualization: A Survey
The concepts of risk-aversion, chance-constrained optimization, and robust optimization have developed significantly over the last decade. Statistical learning community has also witnessed a rapid theoretical and applied growth by relying on these concepts. A modeling framework, called distributionally robust optimization (DRO), has recently received significant attention in both the operations research and statistical learning communities. This paper surveys main concepts and contributions to DRO, and its relationships with robust optimization, risk-aversion, chance-constrained optimization, and function regularization. Distributionally Robust Optimization: A Review
Is all of machine learning supervised to some degree? The field of machine learning has traditionally been categorized pedagogically into $supervised~vs~unsupervised~learning$; where supervised learning has typically referred to learning from labeled data, while unsupervised learning has typically referred to learning from unlabeled data. In this paper, we assert that all machine learning is in fact supervised to some degree, and that the scope of supervision is necessarily commensurate to the scope of learning potential. In particular, we argue that clustering algorithms such as k-means, and dimensionality reduction algorithms such as principal component analysis, variational autoencoders, and deep belief networks are each internally supervised by the data itself to learn their respective representations of its features. Furthermore, these algorithms are not capable of external inference until their respective outputs (clusters, principal components, or representation codes) have been identified and externally labeled in effect. As such, they do not suffice as examples of unsupervised learning. We propose that the categorization `supervised vs unsupervised learning’ be dispensed with, and instead, learning algorithms be categorized as either $internally~or~externally~supervised$ (or both). We believe this change in perspective will yield new fundamental insights into the structure and character of data and of learning algorithms. Is ‘Unsupervised Learning’ a Misconceived Term?
The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of ‘Why and When Deep Learning works’, with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The output of this challenge resulted in five papers that address different facets of deep learning. These different facets include a high-level understating of why and when deep networks work (and do not work), the impact of geometry on the expressiveness of deep networks, and making deep networks interpretable. Why and When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings
As the core component of Natural Language Processing (NLP) system, Language Model (LM) can provide word representation and probability indication of word sequences. Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) overcome the curse of dimensionality and improve the performance of traditional LMs. A survey on NNLMs is performed in this paper. The structure of classic NNLMs is described firstly, and then some major improvements are introduced and analyzed. We summarize and compare corpora and toolkits of NNLMs. Further, some research directions of NNLMs are discussed. A Survey on Neural Network Language Models
Recently, data mining studies are being successfully conducted to estimate several parameters in a variety of domains. Data mining techniques have attracted the attention of the information industry and society as a whole, due to a large amount of data and the imminent need to turn it into useful knowledge. However, the effective use of data in some areas is still under development, as is the case in sports, which in recent years, has presented a slight growth; consequently, many sports organizations have begun to see that there is a wealth of unexplored knowledge in the data extracted by them. Therefore, this article presents a systematic review of sports data mining. Regarding years 2010 to 2018, 31 types of research were found in this topic. Based on these studies, we present the current panorama, themes, the database used, proposals, algorithms, and research opportunities. Our findings provide a better understanding of the sports data mining potentials, besides motivating the scientific community to explore this timely and interesting topic. Computational Intelligence in Sports: A Systematic Literature Review