What is …

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0.632 Boostrap Sampling with replacement. Each data point has probability (1 – 1/n)n of being selected as test data: Training data = 1 – (1 – 1/n)n of the original data. A particular training data has a probability of (1 – 1/n) of not being picked. This means the training data will contain approximately 63.2% of the instances.



1-Nearest-Neighbor-Based Multiclass Learning This paper deals with Nearest-Neighbor (NN) learning algorithms in metric spaces. Initiated by Fix and Hodges in 1951 , this seemingly simplistic learning paradigm remains competitive against more sophisticated methods and, in its celebrated k-NN version, has been placed on a solid theoretical foundation. Although the classic 1-NN is well known to be inconsistent in general, in recent years a series of papers has presented variations on the theme of a regularized 1-NN classifier, as an alternative to the Bayesconsistent k-NN. Gottlieb et al. showed that approximate nearest neighbor search can act as a regularizer, actually improving generalization performance rather than just injecting noise. In a follow-up work, showed that applying Structural Risk Minimization to (essentially) the margin-regularized datadependent bound in yields a strongly Bayes-consistent 1-NN classifier. A further development has seen margin-based regularization analyzed through the lens of sample compression: a near-optimal nearest neighbor condensing algorithm was presented and later extended to cover semimetric spaces ; an activized version also appeared. As detailed in , margin-regularized 1-NN methods enjoy a number of statistical and computational advantages over the traditional k-NN classifier. Salient among these are explicit data-dependent generalization bounds, and considerable runtime and memory savings. Sample compression affords additional advantages, in the form of tighter generalization bounds and increased efficiency in time and space.
1-of-n Code A special case of constant weight codes are the one-of-N codes, that encode log_2 N bits in a code-word of N bits. The one-of-two code uses the code words 01 and 10 to encode the bits ‘0’ and ‘1’. A one-of-four code can use the words 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000 in order to encode two bits 00, 01, 10, and 11.


2P-DNN Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS), such as Microsoft Azure, Amazon AWS, offers an effective DNN model to complete the machine learning task for small businesses and individuals who are restricted to the lacking data and computing power. However, here comes an issue that user privacy is ex-posed to the MLaaS server, since users need to upload their sensitive data to the MLaaS server. In order to preserve their privacy, users can encrypt their data before uploading it. This makes it difficult to run the DNN model because it is not designed for running in ciphertext domain. In this paper, using the Paillier homomorphic cryptosystem we present a new Privacy-Preserving Deep Neural Network model that we called 2P-DNN. This model can fulfill the machine leaning task in ciphertext domain. By using 2P-DNN, MLaaS is able to provide a Privacy-Preserving machine learning ser-vice for users. We build our 2P-DNN model based on LeNet-5, and test it with the encrypted MNIST dataset. The classification accuracy is more than 97%, which is close to the accuracy of LeNet-5 running with the MNIST dataset and higher than that of other existing Privacy-Preserving machine learning models
2PFPCE Deep Convolutional Neural Networks~(CNNs) offer remarkable performance of classifications and regressions in many high-dimensional problems and have been widely utilized in real-word cognitive applications. However, high computational cost of CNNs greatly hinder their deployment in resource-constrained applications, real-time systems and edge computing platforms. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel filter-pruning framework, two-phase filter pruning based on conditional entropy, namely \textit{2PFPCE}, to compress the CNN models and reduce the inference time with marginal performance degradation. In our proposed method, we formulate filter pruning process as an optimization problem and propose a novel filter selection criteria measured by conditional entropy. Based on the assumption that the representation of neurons shall be evenly distributed, we also develop a maximum-entropy filter freeze technique that can reduce over fitting. Two filter pruning strategies — global and layer-wise strategies, are compared. Our experiment result shows that combining these two strategies can achieve a higher neural network compression ratio than applying only one of them under the same accuracy drop threshold. Two-phase pruning, that is, combining both global and layer-wise strategies, achieves 10 X FLOPs reduction and 46% inference time reduction on VGG-16, with 2% accuracy drop.
2T-graph A 2T-graph is a graph whose edge set can be decomposed into two edge-disjoint spanning trees.


3D BAT In this paper, we focus on obtaining 2D and 3D labels, as well as track IDs for objects on the road with the help of a novel 3D Bounding Box Annotation Toolbox (3D BAT). Our open source, web-based 3D BAT incorporates several smart features to improve usability and efficiency. For instance, this annotation toolbox supports semi-automatic labeling of tracks using interpolation, which is vital for downstream tasks like tracking, motion planning and motion prediction. Moreover, annotations for all camera images are automatically obtained by projecting annotations from 3D space into the image domain. In addition to the raw image and point cloud feeds, a Masterview consisting of the top view (bird’s-eye-view), side view and front views is made available to observe objects of interest from different perspectives. Comparisons of our method with other publicly available annotation tools reveal that 3D annotations can be obtained faster and more efficiently by using our toolbox.
3D Deformation Network
Applications in virtual and augmented reality create a demand for rapid creation and easy access to large sets of 3D models. An effective way to address this demand is to edit or deform existing 3D models based on a reference, e.g., a 2D image which is very easy to acquire. Given such a source 3D model and a target which can be a 2D image, 3D model, or a point cloud acquired as a depth scan, we introduce 3DN, an end-to-end network that deforms the source model to resemble the target. Our method infers per-vertex offset displacements while keeping the mesh connectivity of the source model fixed. We present a training strategy which uses a novel differentiable operation, mesh sampling operator, to generalize our method across source and target models with varying mesh densities. Mesh sampling operator can be seamlessly integrated into the network to handle meshes with different topologies. Qualitative and quantitative results show that our method generates higher quality results compared to the state-of-the art learning-based methods for 3D shape generation. Code is available at github.com/laughtervv/3DN.
3D Point-Capsule Network In this paper, we propose 3D point-capsule networks, an auto-encoder designed to process sparse 3D point clouds while preserving spatial arrangements of the input data. 3D capsule networks arise as a direct consequence of our novel unified 3D auto-encoder formulation. Their dynamic routing scheme and the peculiar 2D latent space deployed by our approach bring in improvements for several common point cloud-related tasks, such as object classification, object reconstruction and part segmentation as substantiated by our extensive evaluations. Moreover, it enables new applications such as part interpolation and replacement.
3D-BEVIS Recent deep learning models achieve impressive results on 3D scene analysis tasks by operating directly on unstructured point clouds. A lot of progress was made in the field of object classification and semantic segmentation. However, the task of instance segmentation is less explored. In this work, we present 3D-BEVIS, a deep learning framework for 3D semantic instance segmentation on point clouds. Following the idea of previous proposal-free instance segmentation approaches, our model learns a feature embedding and groups the obtained feature space into semantic instances. Current point-based methods scale linearly with the number of points by processing local sub-parts of a scene individually. However, to perform instance segmentation by clustering, globally consistent features are required. Therefore, we propose to combine local point geometry with global context information from an intermediate bird’s-eye view representation.

1 thought on “What is …”

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