**Affective Computing**

Affective computing (sometimes called artificial emotional intelligence, or emotion AI) is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer science, psychology, and cognitive science. While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early philosophical inquiries into emotion, the more modern branch of computer science originated with Rosalind Picard’s 1995 paper on affective computing. A motivation for the research is the ability to simulate empathy. The machine should interpret the emotional state of humans and adapt its behavior to them, giving an appropriate response to those emotions. The difference between sentiment analysis and affective analysis is that the latter detects the different emotions instead of identifying only the polarity of the phrase. … **VWPPR**

Growing popularity of social networks demands a highly efficient Personalized PageRank (PPR) updating due to the fast-evolving web graphs of enormous size. While current researches are focusing on PPR updating under link structure modification, efficiently updating PPR when node insertion/ deletion involved remains a challenge. In the previous work called Virtual Web (VW), a few VW architectures are designed, which results in some highly effective initializations to significantly accelerate PageRank updating under both link modification and page insertion/deletion. In the paper, under the general scenario of link modification and node insertion/deletion we tackle the fast PPR updating problem. Specifically, we combine VW with the TrackingPPR method to generate initials, which are then used by the Gauss-Southwell method for fast PPR updating. The algorithm is named VWPPR method. In extensive experiments, three real-world datasets are used that contain 1~5.6M nodes and 6.7M~129M links, while a node perturbation of 40k and link perturbation of 1% are applied. Comparing to the more recent LazyForwardUpdate method, which handles the general PPR updating problem, the VWPPR method is 3~6 times faster in terms of running time, or 4.4~10 times faster in terms of iteration numbers. … **Fully Learnable Group Convolution Module (FLGC)**

Benefitted from its great success on many tasks, deep learning is increasingly used on low-computational-cost devices, e.g. smartphone, embedded devices, etc. To reduce the high computational and memory cost, in this work, we propose a fully learnable group convolution module (FLGC for short) which is quite efficient and can be embedded into any deep neural networks for acceleration. Specifically, our proposed method automatically learns the group structure in the training stage in a fully end-to-end manner, leading to a better structure than the existing pre-defined, two-steps, or iterative strategies. Moreover, our method can be further combined with depthwise separable convolution, resulting in 5 times acceleration than the vanilla Resnet50 on single CPU. An additional advantage is that in our FLGC the number of groups can be set as any value, but not necessarily 2^k as in most existing methods, meaning better tradeoff between accuracy and speed. As evaluated in our experiments, our method achieves better performance than existing learnable group convolution and standard group convolution when using the same number of groups. … **DeepFlow**

The calibration of a reservoir model with observed transient data of fluid pressures and rates is a key task in obtaining a predictive model of the flow and transport behaviour of the earth’s subsurface. The model calibration task, commonly referred to as ‘history matching’, can be formalised as an ill-posed inverse problem where we aim to find the underlying spatial distribution of petrophysical properties that explain the observed dynamic data. We use a generative adversarial network pretrained on geostatistical object-based models to represent the distribution of rock properties for a synthetic model of a hydrocarbon reservoir. The dynamic behaviour of the reservoir fluids is modelled using a transient two-phase incompressible Darcy formulation. We invert for the underlying reservoir properties by first modeling property distributions using the pre-trained generative model then using the adjoint equations of the forward problem to perform gradient descent on the latent variables that control the output of the generative model. In addition to the dynamic observation data, we include well rock-type constraints by introducing an additional objective function. Our contribution shows that for a synthetic test case, we are able to obtain solutions to the inverse problem by optimising in the latent variable space of a deep generative model, given a set of transient observations of a non-linear forward problem. …

# If you did not already know

**25**
*Thursday*
May 2023

Posted What is ...

in