**DeepPool**

The success of modern ride-sharing platforms crucially depends on the profit of the ride-sharing fleet operating companies, and how efficiently the resources are managed. Further, ride-sharing allows sharing costs and, hence, reduces the congestion and emission by making better use of vehicle capacities. In this work, we develop a distributed model-free, DeepPool, that uses deep Q-network (DQN) techniques to learn optimal dispatch policies by interacting with the environment. Further, DeepPool efficiently incorporates travel demand statistics and deep learning models to manage dispatching vehicles for improved ride sharing services. Using real-world dataset of taxi trip records in New York City, DeepPool performs better than other strategies, proposed in the literature, that do not consider ride sharing or do not dispatch the vehicles to regions where the future demand is anticipated. Finally, DeepPool can adapt rapidly to dynamic environments since it is implemented in a distributed manner in which each vehicle solves its own DQN individually without coordination. … **Average Sensitivity**

In modern applications of graphs algorithms, where the graphs of interest are large and dynamic, it is unrealistic to assume that an input representation contains the full information of a graph being studied. Hence, it is desirable to use algorithms that, even when only a (large) subgraph is available, output solutions that are close to the solutions output when the whole graph is available. We formalize this idea by introducing the notion of average sensitivity of graph algorithms, which is the average earth mover’s distance between the output distributions of an algorithm on a graph and its subgraph obtained by removing an edge, where the average is over the edges removed and the distance between two outputs is the Hamming distance. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of average sensitivity. After deriving basic properties of average sensitivity such as composability, we provide efficient approximation algorithms with low average sensitivities for concrete graph problems, including the minimum spanning forest problem, the global minimum cut problem, the maximum matching problem, and the minimum vertex cover problem. We also show that every algorithm for the 2-coloring problem has average sensitivity linear in the number of vertices. To show our algorithmic results, we establish and utilize the following fact; if the presence of a vertex or an edge in the solution output by an algorithm can be decided locally, then the algorithm has a low average sensitivity, allowing us to reuse the analyses of known sublinear-time algorithms. … **Unsupervised Ensemble Learning via Ising Model Approximation (unElisa)**

Unsupervised ensemble learning has long been an interesting yet challenging problem that comes to prominence in recent years with the increasing demand of crowdsourcing in various applications. In this paper, we propose a novel method– unsupervised ensemble learning via Ising model approximation (unElisa) that combines a pruning step with a predicting step. We focus on the binary case and use an Ising model to characterize interactions between the ensemble and the underlying true classifier. The presence of an edge between an observed classifier and the true classifier indicates a direct dependence whereas the absence indicates the corresponding one provides no additional information and shall be eliminated. This observation leads to the pruning step where the key is to recover the neighborhood of the true classifier. We show that it can be recovered successfully with exponentially decaying error in the high-dimensional setting by performing nodewise $\ell_1$-regularized logistic regression. The pruned ensemble allows us to get a consistent estimate of the Bayes classifier for predicting. We also propose an augmented version of majority voting by reversing all labels given by a subgroup of the pruned ensemble. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through extensive numerical experiments and through the application to EHR-based phenotyping prediction on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) using data from Partners Healthcare System. … **Independently Recurrent Neural Network (IndRNN)**

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been widely used for processing sequential data. However, RNNs are commonly difficult to train due to the well-known gradient vanishing and exploding problems and hard to learn long-term patterns. Long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) were developed to address these problems, but the use of hyperbolic tangent and the sigmoid action functions results in gradient decay over layers. Consequently, construction of an efficiently trainable deep network is challenging. In addition, all the neurons in an RNN layer are entangled together and their behaviour is hard to interpret. To address these problems, a new type of RNN, referred to as independently recurrent neural network (IndRNN), is proposed in this paper, where neurons in the same layer are independent of each other and they are connected across layers. We have shown that an IndRNN can be easily regulated to prevent the gradient exploding and vanishing problems while allowing the network to learn long-term dependencies. Moreover, an IndRNN can work with non-saturated activation functions such as relu (rectified linear unit) and be still trained robustly. Multiple IndRNNs can be stacked to construct a network that is deeper than the existing RNNs. Experimental results have shown that the proposed IndRNN is able to process very long sequences (over 5000 time steps), can be used to construct very deep networks (21 layers used in the experiment) and still be trained robustly. Better performances have been achieved on various tasks by using IndRNNs compared with the traditional RNN and LSTM. …

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