**Mixture Likelihood Ratio Test**

We explore the fundamental limits of heterogeneous distributed detection in an anonymous sensor network with n sensors and a single fusion center. The fusion center collects the single observation from each of the n sensors to detect a binary parameter. The sensors are clustered into multiple groups, and different groups follow different distributions under a given hypothesis. The key challenge for the fusion center is the anonymity of sensors — although it knows the exact number of sensors and the distribution of observations in each group, it does not know which group each sensor belongs to. It is hence natural to consider it as a composite hypothesis testing problem. First, we propose an optimal test called mixture likelihood ratio test, which is a randomized threshold test based on the ratio of the uniform mixture of all the possible distributions under one hypothesis to that under the other hypothesis. Optimality is shown by first arguing that there exists an optimal test that is symmetric, that is, it does not depend on the order of observations across the sensors, and then proving that the mixture likelihood ratio test is optimal among all symmetric tests. Second, we focus on the Neyman-Pearson setting and characterize the error exponent of the worst-case type-II error probability as n tends to infinity, assuming the number of sensors in each group is proportional to n. Finally, we generalize our result to find the collection of all achievable type-I and type-II error exponents, showing that the boundary of the region can be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem. Our results elucidate the price of anonymity in heterogeneous distributed detection. The results are also applied to distributed detection under Byzantine attacks, which hints that the conventional approach based on simple hypothesis testing might be too pessimistic. … **Temporal-Spatial Mapping**

Deep learning models have enjoyed great success for image related computer vision tasks like image classification and object detection. For video related tasks like human action recognition, however, the advancements are not as significant yet. The main challenge is the lack of effective and efficient models in modeling the rich temporal spatial information in a video. We introduce a simple yet effective operation, termed Temporal-Spatial Mapping (TSM), for capturing the temporal evolution of the frames by jointly analyzing all the frames of a video. We propose a video level 2D feature representation by transforming the convolutional features of all frames to a 2D feature map, referred to as VideoMap. With each row being the vectorized feature representation of a frame, the temporal-spatial features are compactly represented, while the temporal dynamic evolution is also well embedded. Based on the VideoMap representation, we further propose a temporal attention model within a shallow convolutional neural network to efficiently exploit the temporal-spatial dynamics. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme achieves the state-of-the-art performance, with 4.2% accuracy gain over Temporal Segment Network (TSN), a competing baseline method, on the challenging human action benchmark dataset HMDB51. … **Deep Rendering Model (DRM)**

In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework that provides insights into both the successes and shortcomings of deep learning systems, as well as a principled route to their design and improvement. Our framework is based on a generative probabilistic model that explicitly captures variation due to latent nuisance variables. The Rendering Model (RM) explicitly models nuisance variation through a rendering function that combines the task-specific variables of interest (e.g., object class in an object recognition task) and the collection of nuisance variables. The Deep Rendering Model (DRM) extends the RM in a hierarchical fashion by rendering via a product of affine nuisance transformations across multiple levels of abstraction. The graphical structures of the RM and DRM enable inference via message passing, using, for example, the sum-product or max-sum algorithms, and training via the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. A key element of the framework is the relaxation of the RM/DRM generative model to a discriminative one in order to optimize the bias-variance tradeoff. … **Gated Group Self-Attention (GGSA)**

Answer selection (answer ranking) is one of the key steps in many kinds of question answering (QA) applications, where deep models have achieved state-of-the-art performance. Among these deep models, recurrent neural network (RNN) based models are most popular, typically with better performance than convolutional neural network (CNN) based models. Nevertheless, it is difficult for RNN based models to capture the information about long-range dependency among words in the sentences of questions and answers. In this paper, we propose a new deep model, called gated group self-attention (GGSA), for answer selection. GGSA is inspired by global self-attention which is originally proposed for machine translation and has not been explored in answer selection. GGSA tackles the problem of global self-attention that local and global information cannot be well distinguished. Furthermore, an interaction mechanism between questions and answers is also proposed to enhance GGSA by a residual structure. Experimental results on two popular QA datasets show that GGSA can outperform existing answer selection models to achieve state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, GGSA can also achieve higher accuracy than global self-attention for the answer selection task, with a lower computation cost. …

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