**Distributionally Adversarial Attack (DAA)**

Recent work on adversarial attack has shown that Projected Gradient Descent (PGD) Adversary is a universal first-order adversary, and the classifier adversarially trained by PGD is robust against a wide range of first-order attacks. However, it is worth noting that the objective of an attacking/defense model relies on a data distribution, typically in the form of risk maximization/minimization: $\max\!/\!\min \mathbb{E}_{p(\mathbf{x})} \mathcal{L}(\mathbf{x})$, with $p(\mathbf{x})$ the data distribution and $\mathcal{L}(\cdot)$ a loss function. While PGD generates attack samples independently for each data point, the procedure does not necessary lead to good generalization in terms of risk maximization. In the paper, we achieve the goal by proposing distributionally adversarial attack (DAA), a framework to solve an optimal {\em adversarial data distribution}, a perturbed distribution that is close to the original data distribution but increases the generalization risk maximally. Algorithmically, DAA performs optimization on the space of probability measures, which introduces direct dependency between all data points when generating adversarial samples. DAA is evaluated by attacking state-of-the-art defense models, including the adversarially trained models provided by MadryLab. Notably, DAA outperforms all the attack algorithms listed in MadryLab’s white-box leaderboard, reducing the accuracy of their secret MNIST model to $88.79\%$ (with $l_\infty$ perturbations of $\epsilon = 0.3$) and the accuracy of their secret CIFAR model to $44.73\%$ (with $l_\infty$ perturbations of $\epsilon = 8.0$). Code for the experiments is released on https://…/Distributionally-Adversarial-Attack … **Polar Envelope**

The Moreau envelope is one of the key convexity-preserving functional operations in convex analysis, and it is central to the development and analysis of many approaches for solving convex optimization problems. This paper develops the theory for a parallel convolution operation, called the polar envelope, specialized to gauge functions. We show that many important properties of the Moreau envelope and the proximal map are mirrored by the polar envelope and its corresponding proximal map. These properties include smoothness of the envelope function, uniqueness and continuity of the proximal map, a role in duality and in the construction of algorithms for gauge optimization. We thus establish a suite of tools with which to build algorithms for this family of optimization problems. … **Passive and Partially Active (PPA)**

Fault-tolerance techniques for stream processing engines can be categorized into passive and active approaches. A typical passive approach periodically checkpoints a processing task’s runtime states and can recover a failed task by restoring its runtime state using its latest checkpoint. On the other hand, an active approach usually employs backup nodes to run replicated tasks. Upon failure, the active replica can take over the processing of the failed task with minimal latency. However, both approaches have their own inadequacies in Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines (MPSPE). The passive approach incurs a long recovery latency especially when a number of correlated nodes fail simultaneously, while the active approach requires extra replication resources. In this paper, we propose a new fault-tolerance framework, which is Passive and Partially Active (PPA). In a PPA scheme, the passive approach is applied to all tasks while only a selected set of tasks will be actively replicated. The number of actively replicated tasks depends on the available resources. If tasks without active replicas fail, tentative outputs will be generated before the completion of the recovery process. We also propose effective and efficient algorithms to optimize a partially active replication plan to maximize the quality of tentative outputs. We implemented PPA on top of Storm, an open-source MPSPE and conducted extensive experiments using both real and synthetic datasets to verify the effectiveness of our approach. … **BinaryNet**

We introduce BinaryNet, a method which trains DNNs with binary weights and activations when computing parameters’ gradient. We show that it is possible to train a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) on MNIST and ConvNets on CIFAR-10 and SVHN with BinaryNet and achieve nearly state-of-the-art results. At run-time, BinaryNet drastically reduces memory usage and replaces most multiplications by 1-bit exclusive-not-or (XNOR) operations, which might have a big impact on both general-purpose and dedicated Deep Learning hardware. We wrote a binary matrix multiplication GPU kernel with which it is possible to run our MNIST MLP 7 times faster than with an unoptimized GPU kernel, without suffering any loss in classification accuracy. The code for BinaryNet is available. …

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