**Graphical Kernel System (GKS)**

The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) is a document produced by the International Standards Organization (ISO) which defines a common interface to interactive computer graphics for application programs. GKS has been designed by a group of experts representing the national standards institutions of most major industrialized countries. The full standard provides functional specifications for some 200 subroutines which perform graphics input and output in a device independent way. Application programs can thus move freely between different graphics devices and different host computers. For the first time graphics programs have become genuinely portable. … **Sparse Gaussian Processes With Q-Function (SGP-Q)**

Online anomaly detection of time-series data is an important and challenging task in machine learning. Gaussian processes (GPs) are powerful and flexible models for modeling time-series data. However, the high time complexity of GPs limits their applications in online anomaly detection. Attributed to some internal or external changes, concept drift usually occurs in time-series data, where the characteristics of data and meanings of abnormal behaviors alter over time. Online anomaly detection methods should have the ability to adapt to concept drift. Motivated by the above facts, this paper proposes the method of sparse Gaussian processes with Q-function (SGP-Q). The SGP-Q employs sparse Gaussian processes (SGPs) whose time complexity is lower than that of GPs, thus significantly speeding up online anomaly detection. By using Q-function properly, the SGP-Q can adapt to concept drift well. Moreover, the SGP-Q makes use of few abnormal data in the training data by its strategy of updating training data, resulting in more accurate sparse Gaussian process regression models and better anomaly detection results. We evaluate the SGP-Q on various artificial and real-world datasets. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the SGP-Q. … **Epsilon-Subgradient Descent**

Minimax optimization plays a key role in adversarial training of machine learning algorithms, such as learning generative models, domain adaptation, privacy preservation, and robust learning. In this paper, we demonstrate the failure of alternating gradient descent in minimax optimization problems due to the discontinuity of solutions of the inner maximization. To address this, we propose a new epsilon-subgradient descent algorithm that addresses this problem by simultaneously tracking K candidate solutions. Practically, the algorithm can find solutions that previous saddle-point algorithms cannot find, with only a sublinear increase of complexity in K. We analyze the conditions under which the algorithm converges to the true solution in detail. A significant improvement in stability and convergence speed of the algorithm is observed in simple representative problems, GAN training, and domain-adaptation problems. … **Ranking Distillation (RD)**

We propose a novel way to train ranking models, such as recommender systems, that are both effective and efficient. Knowledge distillation (KD) was shown to be successful in image recognition to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency. We propose a KD technique for learning to rank problems, called \emph{ranking distillation (RD)}. Specifically, we train a smaller student model to learn to rank documents/items from both the training data and the supervision of a larger teacher model. The student model achieves a similar ranking performance to that of the large teacher model, but its smaller model size makes the online inference more efficient. RD is flexible because it is orthogonal to the choices of ranking models for the teacher and student. We address the challenges of RD for ranking problems. The experiments on public data sets and state-of-the-art recommendation models showed that RD achieves its design purposes: the student model learnt with RD has a model size less than half of the teacher model while achieving a ranking performance similar to the teacher model and much better than the student model learnt without RD. …

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