Complex-Valued Network for Matching (CNM) google
This paper seeks to model human language by the mathematical framework of quantum physics. With the well-designed mathematical formulations in quantum physics, this framework unifies different linguistic units in a single complex-valued vector space, e.g. words as particles in quantum states and sentences as mixed systems. A complex-valued network is built to implement this framework for semantic matching. With well-constrained complex-valued components, the network admits interpretations to explicit physical meanings. The proposed complex-valued network for matching (CNM) achieves comparable performances to strong CNN and RNN baselines on two benchmarking question answering (QA) datasets. …

Expected Utility Hypothesis (EUH) google
In economics, game theory, and decision theory the expected utility hypothesis is a hypothesis concerning people’s preferences with regard to choices that have uncertain outcomes (gambles). This hypothesis states that if specific axioms are satisfied, the subjective value associated with an individual’s gamble is the statistical expectation of that individual’s valuations of the outcomes of that gamble. This hypothesis has proved useful to explain some popular choices that seem to contradict the expected value criterion (which takes into account only the sizes of the payouts and the probabilities of occurrence), such as occur in the contexts of gambling and insurance. Daniel Bernoulli initiated this hypothesis in 1738. Until the mid-twentieth century, the standard term for the expected utility was the moral expectation, contrasted with ‘mathematical expectation’ for the expected value. The von Neumann-Morgenstern utility theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions under which the expected utility hypothesis holds. From relatively early on, it was accepted that some of these conditions would be violated by real decision-makers in practice but that the conditions could be interpreted nonetheless as ‘axioms’ of rational choice. Work by Anand (1993) argues against this normative interpretation and shows that ‘rationality’ does not require transitivity, independence or completeness. This view is now referred to as the ‘modern view’ and Anand argues that despite the normative and evidential difficulties the general theory of decision-making based on expected utility is an insightful first order approximation that highlights some important fundamental principles of choice, even if it imposes conceptual and technical limits on analysis which need to be relaxed in real world settings where knowledge is less certain or preferences are more sophisticated. …

Neurons Merging Layer (NMLayer) google
Deep supervised hashing has become an active topic in web search and information retrieval. It generates hashing bits by the output neurons of a deep hashing network. During binary discretization, there often exists much redundancy among hashing bits that degenerates retrieval performance in terms of both storage and accuracy. This paper formulates the redundancy problem in deep supervised hashing as a graph learning problem and proposes a novel layer, named Neurons Merging Layer (NMLayer). The NMLayer constructs a graph to model the adjacency relationship among different neurons. Specifically, it learns the relationship by the defined active and frozen phases. According to the learned relationship, the NMLayer merges the redundant neurons together to balance the importance of each output neuron. Based on the NMLayer, we further propose a progressive optimization strategy for training a deep hashing network. That is, multiple NMLayers are progressively trained to learn a more compact hashing code from a long redundant code. Extensive experiments on four datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods. …

Adversarial Generalized Method of Moments google
We provide an approach for learning deep neural net representations of models described via conditional moment restrictions. Conditional moment restrictions are widely used, as they are the language by which social scientists describe the assumptions they make to enable causal inference. We formulate the problem of estimating the underling model as a zero-sum game between a modeler and an adversary and apply adversarial training. Our approach is similar in nature to Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), though here the modeler is learning a representation of a function that satisfies a continuum of moment conditions and the adversary is identifying violating moments. We outline ways of constructing effective adversaries in practice, including kernels centered by k-means clustering, and random forests. We examine the practical performance of our approach in the setting of non-parametric instrumental variable regression. …