**Generalizable Approximate Graph Partitioning Framework (GAP)**

Graph partitioning is the problem of dividing the nodes of a graph into balanced partitions while minimizing the edge cut across the partitions. Due to its combinatorial nature, many approximate solutions have been developed, including variants of multi-level methods and spectral clustering. We propose GAP, a Generalizable Approximate Partitioning framework that takes a deep learning approach to graph partitioning. We define a differentiable loss function that represents the partitioning objective and use backpropagation to optimize the network parameters. Unlike baselines that redo the optimization per graph, GAP is capable of generalization, allowing us to train models that produce performant partitions at inference time, even on unseen graphs. Furthermore, because we learn the representation of the graph while jointly optimizing for the partitioning loss function, GAP can be easily tuned for a variety of graph structures. We evaluate the performance of GAP on graphs of varying sizes and structures, including graphs of widely used machine learning models (e.g., ResNet, VGG, and Inception-V3), scale-free graphs, and random graphs. We show that GAP achieves competitive partitions while being up to 100 times faster than the baseline and generalizes to unseen graphs. … **Geometrically Designed Spline Regression**

Geometrically Designed Spline (‘GeDS’) Regression is a non-parametric geometrically motivated method for fitting variable knots spline predictor models in one or two independent variables, in the context of generalized (non-)linear models. ‘GeDS’ estimates the number and position of the knots and the order of the spline, assuming the response variable has a distribution from the exponential family. A description of the method can be found in Kaishev et al. (2016) <doi:10.1007/s00180-015-0621-7> and Dimitrova et al. (2017) <https://…/18460>. … **Multi-Objective Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (MO-NMF)**

Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a linear dimensionality reduction technique for analyzing nonnegative data. A key aspect of NMF is the choice of the objective function that depends on the noise model (or statistics of the noise) assumed on the data. In many applications, the noise model is unknown and difficult to estimate. In this paper, we define a multi-objective Nonnegative matrix factorization (MO-NMF) problem, where several objectives are combined within the same NMF model. We propose to use Lagrange duality to judiciously optimize for a set of weights to be used within the framework of the weighted-sum approach, that is, we minimize a single objective function which is a weighted sum of the all objective functions. We design a simple algorithm using multiplicative updates to minimize this weighted sum. We show how this can be used to find distributionally robust NMF solutions, that is, solutions that minimize the largest error among all objectives. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach on synthetic, document and audio datasets. The results show that DR-NMF is robust to our incognizance of the noise model of the NMF problem. … **Causal Implicit Generative Model (CiGM)**

We introduce causal implicit generative models (CiGMs): models that allow sampling from not only the true observational but also the true interventional distributions. We show that adversarial training can be used to learn a CiGM, if the generator architecture is structured based on a given causal graph. We consider the application of conditional and interventional sampling of face images with binary feature labels, such as mustache, young. We preserve the dependency structure between the labels with a given causal graph. We devise a two-stage procedure for learning a CiGM over the labels and the image. First we train a CiGM over the binary labels using a Wasserstein GAN where the generator neural network is consistent with the causal graph between the labels. Later, we combine this with a conditional GAN to generate images conditioned on the binary labels. We propose two new conditional GAN architectures: CausalGAN and CausalBEGAN. We show that the optimal generator of the CausalGAN, given the labels, samples from the image distributions conditioned on these labels. The conditional GAN combined with a trained CiGM for the labels is then a CiGM over the labels and the generated image. We show that the proposed architectures can be used to sample from observational and interventional image distributions, even for interventions which do not naturally occur in the dataset. …

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