**PUN-list**

In this paper, we propose a novel data structure called PUN-list, which maintains both the utility information about an itemset and utility upper bound for facilitating the processing of mining high utility itemsets. Based on PUN-lists, we present a method, called MIP (Mining high utility Itemset using PUN-Lists), for fast mining high utility itemsets. The efficiency of MIP is achieved with three techniques. First, itemsets are represented by a highly condensed data structure, PUN-list, which avoids costly, repeatedly utility computation. Second, the utility of an itemset can be efficiently calculated by scanning the PUN-list of the itemset and the PUN-lists of long itemsets can be fast constructed by the PUN-lists of short itemsets. Third, by employing the utility upper bound lying in the PUN-lists as the pruning strategy, MIP directly discovers high utility itemsets from the search space, called set-enumeration tree, without generating numerous candidates. Extensive experiments on various synthetic and real datasets show that PUN-list is very effective since MIP is at least an order of magnitude faster than recently reported algorithms on average. … **Cooperative Inverse Reinforcement Learning (CIRL)**

For an autonomous system to be helpful to humans and to pose no unwarranted risks, it needs to align its values with those of the humans in its environment in such a way that its actions contribute to the maximization of value for the humans. We propose a formal definition of the value alignment problem as {\em cooperative inverse reinforcement learning} (CIRL). A CIRL problem is a cooperative, partial-information game with two agents, human and robot; both are rewarded according to the human’s reward function, but the robot does not initially know what this is. In contrast to classical IRL, where the human is assumed to act optimally in isolation, optimal CIRL solutions produce behaviors such as active teaching, active learning, and communicative actions that are more effective in achieving value alignment. We show that computing optimal joint policies in CIRL games can be reduced to solving a POMDP, prove that optimality in isolation is suboptimal in CIRL, and derive an approximate CIRL algorithm. … **Adaptive-Miner**

Extraction of valuable data from extensive datasets is a standout amongst the most vital exploration issues. Association rule mining is one of the highly used methods for this purpose. Finding possible associations between items in large transaction based datasets (finding frequent itemsets) is most crucial part of the association rule mining task. Many single-machine based association rule mining algorithms exist but the massive amount of data available these days is above the capacity of a single machine based algorithm. Therefore, to meet the demands of this ever-growing enormous data, there is a need for distributed association rule mining algorithm which can run on multiple machines. For these types of parallel/distributed applications, MapReduce is one of the best fault-tolerant frameworks. Hadoop is one of the most popular open-source software frameworks with MapReduce based approach for distributed storage and processing of large datasets using standalone clusters built from commodity hardware. But heavy disk I/O operation at each iteration of a highly iterative algorithm like Apriori makes Hadoop inefficient. A number of MapReduce based platforms are being developed for parallel computing in recent years. Among them, a platform, namely, Spark have attracted a lot of attention because of its inbuilt support to distributed computations. Therefore, we implemented a distributed association rule mining algorithm on Spark named as Adaptive-Miner which uses adaptive approach for finding frequent patterns with higher accuracy and efficiency. Adaptive-Miner uses an adaptive strategy based on the partial processing of datasets. Adaptive-Miner makes execution plans before every iteration and goes with the best suitable plan to minimize time and space complexity. Adpative-Miner is a dynamic association rule mining algorithm which change its approach based on the nature of dataset. Therefore, it is different and better than state-of-the-art static association rule mining algorithms. We conduct in-depth experiments to gain insight into the effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of the Adaptive-Miner algorithm on Spark. Available: https ://githu b.com/sanja ysing hrath i/ Adapt ive-Miner … **Inverse Problem**

An inverse problem in science is the process of calculating from a set of observations the causal factors that produced them: for example, calculating an image in X-ray computed tomography, source reconstruction in acoustics, or calculating the density of the Earth from measurements of its gravity field. It is called an inverse problem because it starts with the effects and then calculates the causes. It is the inverse of a forward problem, which starts with the causes and then calculates the effects. Inverse problems are some of the most important mathematical problems in science and mathematics because they tell us about parameters that we cannot directly observe. They have wide application in system identification, optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing, medical imaging, computer vision, geophysics, oceanography, astronomy, remote sensing, natural language processing, machine learning, nondestructive testing, and many other fields. …

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