**Latent Order Logistic (LOLOG)**

Full probability models are critical for the statistical modeling of complex networks, and yet there are few general, flexible and widely applicable generative methods. We propose a new family of probability models motivated by the idea of network growth, which we call the Latent Order Logistic (LOLOG) model. LOLOG is a fully general framework capable of describing any probability distribution over graph configurations, though not all distributions are easily expressible or estimable as a LOLOG. We develop inferential procedures based on Monte Carlo Method of Moments, Generalized Method of Moments and variational inference. To show the flexibility of the model framework, we show how so-called scale-free networks can be modeled as LOLOGs via preferential attachment. The advantages of LOLOG in terms of avoidance of degeneracy, ease of sampling, and model flexibility are illustrated. Connections with the popular Exponential-family Random Graph model (ERGM) are also explored, and we find that they are identical in the case of dyadic independence. Finally, we apply the model to a social network of collaboration within a corporate law firm, a friendship network among adolescent students, and the friendship relations in an online social network. … **Glue Code**

The term glue code is sometimes used to describe implementations of the adapter pattern. It does not serve any use in calculation or computation. Rather it serves as a proxy between otherwise incompatible parts of software, to make them compatible. The standard practice is to keep logic out of the glue code and leave that to the code blocks it connects to. … **Online Gradient Descent With Expected Gradient (OGDEG)**

Online learning with limited information feedback (bandit) tries to solve the problem where an online learner receives partial feedback information from the environment in the course of learning. Under this setting, Flaxman extends Zinkevich’s classical Online Gradient Descent (OGD) algorithm Zinkevich [2003] by proposing the Online Gradient Descent with Expected Gradient (OGDEG) algorithm. Specifically, it uses a simple trick to approximate the gradient of the loss function $f_t$ by evaluating it at a single point and bounds the expected regret as $\mathcal{O}(T^{5/6})$ Flaxman et al. [2005]. It has been shown that compared with the first-order algorithms, second-order online learning algorithms such as Online Newton Step (ONS) Hazan et al. [2007] can significantly accelerate the convergence rate in traditional online learning. Motivated by this, this paper aims to exploit second-order information to speed up the convergence of OGDEG. In particular, we extend the ONS algorithm with the trick of expected gradient and develop a novel second-order online learning algorithm, i.e., Online Newton Step with Expected Gradient (ONSEG). Theoretically, we show that the proposed ONSEG algorithm significantly reduces the expected regret of OGDEG from $\mathcal{O}(T^{5/6})$ to $\mathcal{O}(T^{2/3})$ in the bandit feedback scenario. Empirically, we demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm on several real-world datasets. … **NOn-stationary Space TIme variable Latent Length scale GP (NOSTILL-GP)**

One of the primary aspects of sustainable development involves accurate understanding and modeling of environmental phenomena. Many of these phenomena exhibit variations in both space and time and it is imperative to develop a deeper understanding of techniques that can model space-time dynamics accurately. In this paper we propose NOSTILL-GP – NOn-stationary Space TIme variable Latent Length scale GP, a generic non-stationary, spatio-temporal Gaussian Process (GP) model. We present several strategies, for efficient training of our model, necessary for real-world applicability. Extensive empirical validation is performed using three real-world environmental monitoring datasets, with diverse dynamics across space and time. Results from the experiments clearly demonstrate general applicability and effectiveness of our approach for applications in environmental monitoring. …

# If you did not already know

**22**
*Tuesday*
Nov 2022

Posted What is ...

in