**Graph Wavelet Neural Network (GWNN)**

We present graph wavelet neural network (GWNN), a novel graph convolutional neural network (CNN), leveraging graph wavelet transform to address the shortcomings of previous spectral graph CNN methods that depend on graph Fourier transform. Different from graph Fourier transform, graph wavelet transform can be obtained via a fast algorithm without requiring matrix eigendecomposition with high computational cost. Moreover, graph wavelets are sparse and localized in vertex domain, offering high efficiency and good interpretability for graph convolution. The proposed GWNN significantly outperforms previous spectral graph CNNs in the task of graph-based semi-supervised classification on three benchmark datasets: Cora, Citeseer and Pubmed. … **Guided Dropout**

Dropout is often used in deep neural networks to prevent over-fitting. Conventionally, dropout training invokes \textit{random drop} of nodes from the hidden layers of a Neural Network. It is our hypothesis that a guided selection of nodes for intelligent dropout can lead to better generalization as compared to the traditional dropout. In this research, we propose ‘guided dropout’ for training deep neural network which drop nodes by measuring the strength of each node. We also demonstrate that conventional dropout is a specific case of the proposed guided dropout. Experimental evaluation on multiple datasets including MNIST, CIFAR10, CIFAR100, SVHN, and Tiny ImageNet demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed guided dropout. … **Principal Component-Guided Sparse Regression (pcLasso)**

We propose a new method for supervised learning, especially suited to wide data where the number of features is much greater than the number of observations. The method combines the lasso (l 1 ) sparsity penalty with a quadratic penalty that shrinks the coefficient vector toward the leading principal components of the feature matrix. We call the proposed method the ‘principal components lasso’ (‘pcLasso’). The method can be especially powerful if the features are pre-assigned to groups (such as cell-pathways, assays or protein interaction networks). In that case, pcLasso shrinks each group-wise component of the solution toward the leading principal components of that group. In the process, it also carries out selection of the feature groups. We provide some theory for this method and illustrate it on a number of simulated and real data examples. … **Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test (KS)**

In statistics, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test or KS test) is a nonparametric test of the equality of continuous, one-dimensional probability distributions that can be used to compare a sample with a reference probability distribution (one-sample K-S test), or to compare two samples (two-sample K-S test). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic quantifies a distance between the empirical distribution function of the sample and the cumulative distribution function of the reference distribution, or between the empirical distribution functions of two samples. The null distribution of this statistic is calculated under the null hypothesis that the samples are drawn from the same distribution (in the two-sample case) or that the sample is drawn from the reference distribution (in the one-sample case). In each case, the distributions considered under the null hypothesis are continuous distributions but are otherwise unrestricted. The two-sample K-S test is one of the most useful and general nonparametric methods for comparing two samples, as it is sensitive to differences in both location and shape of the empirical cumulative distribution functions of the two samples. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test can be modified to serve as a goodness of fit test. In the special case of testing for normality of the distribution, samples are standardized and compared with a standard normal distribution. This is equivalent to setting the mean and variance of the reference distribution equal to the sample estimates, and it is known that using these to define the specific reference distribution changes the null distribution of the test statistic: see below. Various studies have found that, even in this corrected form, the test is less powerful for testing normality than the Shapiro-Wilk test or Anderson-Darling test. However, other tests have their own disadvantages. For instance the Shapiro-Wilk test is known not to work well with many ties (many identical values). …

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