**Deep Variational Canonical Correlation Analysis (VCCA)**

We present deep variational canonical correlation analysis (VCCA), a deep multi-view learning model that extends the latent variable model interpretation of linear CCA~\citep{BachJordan05a} to nonlinear observation models parameterized by deep neural networks (DNNs). Marginal data likelihood as well as inference are intractable under this model. We derive a variational lower bound of the data likelihood by parameterizing the posterior density of the latent variables with another DNN, and approximate the lower bound via Monte Carlo sampling. Interestingly, the resulting model resembles that of multi-view autoencoders~\citep{Ngiam_11b}, with the key distinction of an additional sampling procedure at the bottleneck layer. We also propose a variant of VCCA called VCCA-private which can, in addition to the ‘common variables’ underlying both views, extract the ‘private variables’ within each view. We demonstrate that VCCA-private is able to disentangle the shared and private information for multi-view data without hard supervision. … **Efficient Alternating Direction Multiplier Method (ADMM)**

Feature selection can efficiently identify the most informative features with respect to the target feature used in training. However, state-of-the-art vector-based methods are unable to encapsulate the relationships between feature samples into the feature selection process, thus leading to significant information loss. To address this problem, we propose a new graph-based structurally interacting elastic net method for feature selection. Specifically, we commence by constructing feature graphs that can incorporate pairwise relationship between samples. With the feature graphs to hand, we propose a new information theoretic criterion to measure the joint relevance of different pairwise feature combinations with respect to the target feature graph representation. This measure is used to obtain a structural interaction matrix where the elements represent the proposed information theoretic measure between feature pairs. We then formulate a new optimization model through the combination of the structural interaction matrix and an elastic net regression model for the feature subset selection problem. This allows us to a) preserve the information of the original vectorial space, b) remedy the information loss of the original feature space caused by using graph representation, and c) promote a sparse solution and also encourage correlated features to be selected. Because the proposed optimization problem is non-convex, we develop an efficient alternating direction multiplier method (ADMM) to locate the optimal solutions. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. … **Factor Graph**

A factor graph is a bipartite graph representing the factorization of a function. In probability theory and its applications, factor graphs are used to represent factorization of a probability distribution function, enabling efficient computations, such as the computation of marginal distributions through the sum-product algorithm. One of the important success stories of factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm is the decoding of capacity-approaching error-correcting codes, such as LDPC and turbo codes. Factor graphs generalize constraint graphs. A factor whose value is either 0 or 1 is called a constraint. A constraint graph is a factor graph where all factors are constraints. The max-product algorithm for factor graphs can be viewed as a generalization of the arc-consistency algorithm for constraint processing. … **TF-Replicator**

We describe TF-Replicator, a framework for distributed machine learning designed for DeepMind researchers and implemented as an abstraction over TensorFlow. TF-Replicator simplifies writing data-parallel and model-parallel research code. The same models can be effortlessly deployed to different cluster architectures (i.e. one or many machines containing CPUs, GPUs or TPU accelerators) using synchronous or asynchronous training regimes. To demonstrate the generality and scalability of TF-Replicator, we implement and benchmark three very different models: (1) A ResNet-50 for ImageNet classification, (2) a SN-GAN for class-conditional ImageNet image generation, and (3) a D4PG reinforcement learning agent for continuous control. Our results show strong scalability performance without demanding any distributed systems expertise of the user. The TF-Replicator programming model will be open-sourced as part of TensorFlow 2.0 (see https://…/25 ). …

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