**Target Driven Instance Detector (TDID)**

While state-of-the-art general object detectors are getting better and better, there are not many systems specifically designed to take advantage of the instance detection problem. For many applications, such as household robotics, a system may need to recognize a few very specific instances at a time. Speed can be critical in these applications, as can the need to recognize previously unseen instances. We introduce a Target Driven Instance Detector(TDID), which modifies existing general object detectors for the instance recognition setting. TDID not only improves performance on instances seen during training, with a fast runtime, but is also able to generalize to detect novel instances. … **Word Embedding Attention Network (WEAN)**

Most recent approaches use the sequence-to-sequence model for paraphrase generation. The existing sequence-to-sequence model tends to memorize the words and the patterns in the training dataset instead of learning the meaning of the words. Therefore, the generated sentences are often grammatically correct but semantically improper. In this work, we introduce a novel model based on the encoder-decoder framework, called Word Embedding Attention Network (WEAN). Our proposed model generates the words by querying distributed word representations (i.e. neural word embeddings), hoping to capturing the meaning of the according words. Following previous work, we evaluate our model on two paraphrase-oriented tasks, namely text simplification and short text abstractive summarization. Experimental results show that our model outperforms the sequence-to-sequence baseline by the BLEU score of 6.3 and 5.5 on two English text simplification datasets, and the ROUGE-2 F1 score of 5.7 on a Chinese summarization dataset. Moreover, our model achieves state-of-the-art performances on these three benchmark datasets. … **Linear-Time Clustering Algorithm (K-sets+)**

In this paper, we first propose a new iterative algorithm, called the K-sets+ algorithm for clustering data points in a semi-metric space, where the distance measure does not necessarily satisfy the triangular inequality. We show that the K-sets+ algorithm converges in a finite number of iterations and it retains the same performance guarantee as the K-sets algorithm for clustering data points in a metric space. We then extend the applicability of the K-sets+ algorithm from data points in a semi-metric space to data points that only have a symmetric similarity measure. Such an extension leads to great reduction of computational complexity. In particular, for an n * n similarity matrix with m nonzero elements in the matrix, the computational complexity of the K-sets+ algorithm is O((Kn + m)I), where I is the number of iterations. The memory complexity to achieve that computational complexity is O(Kn + m). As such, both the computational complexity and the memory complexity are linear in n when the n * n similarity matrix is sparse, i.e., m = O(n). We also conduct various experiments to show the effectiveness of the K-sets+ algorithm by using a synthetic dataset from the stochastic block model and a real network from the WonderNetwork website. … **Logitron**

Classification is the most important process in data analysis. However, due to the inherent non-convex and non-smooth structure of the zero-one loss function of the classification model, various convex surrogate loss functions such as hinge loss, squared hinge loss, logistic loss, and exponential loss are introduced. These loss functions have been used for decades in diverse classification models, such as SVM (support vector machine) with hinge loss, logistic regression with logistic loss, and Adaboost with exponential loss and so on. In this work, we present a Perceptron-augmented convex classification framework, {\it Logitron}. The loss function of it is a smoothly stitched function of the extended logistic loss with the famous Perceptron loss function. The extended logistic loss function is a parameterized function established based on the extended logarithmic function and the extended exponential function. The main advantage of the proposed Logitron classification model is that it shows the connection between SVM and logistic regression via polynomial parameterization of the loss function. In more details, depending on the choice of parameters, we have the Hinge-Logitron which has the generalized $k$-th order hinge-loss with an additional $k$-th root stabilization function and the Logistic-Logitron which has a logistic-like loss function with relatively large $|k|$. Interestingly, even $k=-1$, Hinge-Logitron satisfies the classification-calibration condition and shows reasonable classification performance with low computational cost. The numerical experiment in the linear classifier framework demonstrates that Hinge-Logitron with $k=4$ (the fourth-order SVM with the fourth root stabilization function) outperforms logistic regression, SVM, and other Logitron models in terms of classification accuracy. …

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