**Data Oriented Design**

In computing, data-oriented design is a program optimization approach motivated by efficient usage of the CPU cache, used in video game development. The approach is to focus on the data layout, separating and sorting fields according to when they are needed, and to think about transformations of data. Proponents include Mike Acton and Scott Meyers. … **Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK)**

At initialization, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are equivalent to Gaussian processes in the infinite-width limit, thus connecting them to kernel methods. We prove that the evolution of an ANN during training can also be described by a kernel: during gradient descent on the parameters of an ANN, the network function fTheta(which maps input vectors to output vectors) follows the kernel gradient of the functional cost (which is convex, in contrast to the parameter cost) w.r.t. a new kernel: the Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK). This kernel is central to describe the generalization features of ANNs. While the NTK is random at initialization and varies during training, in the infinite-width limit it converges to an explicit limiting kernel and it stays constant during training. This makes it possible to study the training of ANNs in function space instead of parameter space. Convergence of the training can then be related to the positive-definiteness of the limiting NTK. We prove the positive-definiteness of the limiting NTK when the data is supported on the sphere and the non-linearity is non-polynomial. We then focus on the setting of least-squares regression and show that in the infinite-width limit, the network function fTheta follows a linear differential equation during training. The convergence is fastest along the largest kernel principal components of the input data with respect to the NTK, hence suggesting a theoretical motivation for early stopping. Finally we study the NTK numerically, observe its behavior for wide networks, and compare it to the infinite-width limit.

On Exact Computation with an Infinitely Wide Neural Net … **Deep Distance Metric Learning (DDML)**

Deep distance metric learning (DDML), which is proposed to learn image similarity metrics in an end-to-end manner based on the convolution neural network. … **Bayesian Causal Inference (BCI)**

We address the problem of two-variable causal inference. This task is to infer an existing causal relation between two random variables, i.e. $X \rightarrow Y$ or $Y \rightarrow X$, from purely observational data. We briefly review a number of state-of-the-art methods for this, including very recent ones. A novel inference method is introduced, Bayesian Causal Inference (BCI), which assumes a generative Bayesian hierarchical model to pursue the strategy of Bayesian model selection. In the model the distribution of the cause variable is given by a Poisson lognormal distribution, which allows to explicitly regard discretization effects. We assume Fourier diagonal Field covariance operators. The generative model assumed provides synthetic causal data for benchmarking our model in comparison to existing State-of-the-art models, namely LiNGAM, ANM-HSIC, ANM-MML, IGCI and CGNN. We explore how well the above methods perform in case of high noise settings, strongly discretized data and very sparse data. BCI performs generally reliable with synthetic data as well as with the real world TCEP benchmark set, with an accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms. …

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Oct 2021

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