**Volume-based Model**

Active Learning (AL) is a learning task that requires learners interactively query the labels of the sampled unlabeled instances to minimize the training outputs with human supervisions. In theoretical study, learners approximate the version space which covers all possible classification hypothesis into a bounded convex body and try to shrink the volume of it into a half-space by a given cut size. However, only the hypersphere with finite VC dimensions has obtained formal approximation guarantees that hold when the classes of Euclidean space are separable with a margin. In this paper, we approximate the version space to a structured {hypersphere} that covers most of the hypotheses, and then divide the available AL sampling approaches into two kinds of strategies: Outer Volume Sampling and Inner Volume Sampling. After providing provable guarantees for the performance of AL in version space, we aggregate the two kinds of volumes to eliminate their sampling biases via finding the optimal inscribed hyperspheres in the enclosing space of outer volume. To touch the version space from Euclidean space, we propose a theoretical bridge called Volume-based Model that increases the `sampling target-independent’. In non-linear feature space, spanned by kernel, we use sequential optimization to globally optimize the original space to a sparse space by halving the size of the kernel space. Then, the EM (Expectation Maximization) model which returns the local center helps us to find a local representation. To describe this process, we propose an easy-to-implement algorithm called Volume-based AL (VAL). … **Continuous Growth and Pruning (CGaP)**

Today a canonical approach to reduce the computation cost of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) is to pre-define an over-parameterized model before training to guarantee the learning capacity, and then prune unimportant learning units (filters and neurons) during training to improve model compactness. We argue it is unnecessary to introduce redundancy at the beginning of the training but then reduce redundancy for the ultimate inference model. In this paper, we propose a Continuous Growth and Pruning (CGaP) scheme to minimize the redundancy from the beginning. CGaP starts the training from a small network seed, then expands the model continuously by reinforcing important learning units, and finally prunes the network to obtain a compact and accurate model. As the growth phase favors important learning units, CGaP provides a clear learning purpose to the pruning phase. Experimental results on representative datasets and DNN architectures demonstrate that CGaP outperforms previous pruning-only approaches that deal with pre-defined structures. For VGG-19 on CIFAR-100 and SVHN datasets, CGaP reduces the number of parameters by 78.9% and 85.8%, FLOPs by 53.2% and 74.2%, respectively; For ResNet-110 On CIFAR-10, CGaP reduces 64.0% number of parameters and 63.3% FLOPs. … **Graph-Structured Neural Network (GSN)**

Existing neural models for dialogue response generation assume that utterances are sequentially organized. However, many real-world dialogues involve multiple interlocutors (i.e., multi-party dialogues), where the assumption does not hold as utterances from different interlocutors can occur ‘in parallel.’ This paper generalizes existing sequence-based models to a Graph-Structured neural Network (GSN) for dialogue modeling. The core of GSN is a graph-based encoder that can model the information flow along the graph-structured dialogues (two-party sequential dialogues are a special case). Experimental results show that GSN significantly outperforms existing sequence-based models. … **Factorized Macro Action Reinforcement Learning**

One problem in the application of reinforcement learning to real-world problems is the curse of dimensionality on the action space. Macro actions, a sequence of primitive actions, have been studied to diminish the dimensionality of the action space with regard to the time axis. However, previous studies relied on humans defining macro actions or assumed macro actions as repetitions of the same primitive actions. We present Factorized Macro Action Reinforcement Learning (FaMARL) which autonomously learns disentangled factor representation of a sequence of actions to generate macro actions that can be directly applied to general reinforcement learning algorithms. FaMARL exhibits higher scores than other reinforcement learning algorithms on environments that require an extensive amount of search. …

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