**Affine Forward Variance (AFV)**

We introduce the class of affine forward variance (AFV) models of which both the conventional Heston model and the rough Heston model are special cases. We show that AFV models can be characterized by the affine form of their cumulant generating function, which can be obtained as solution of a convolution Riccati equation. We further introduce the class of affine forward order flow intensity (AFI) models, which are structurally similar to AFV models, but driven by jump processes, and which include Hawkes-type models. We show that the cumulant generating function of an AFI model satisfies a generalized convolution Riccati equation and that a high-frequency limit of AFI models converges in distribution to the AFV model. … **Jumping Knowledge Network (JKN)**

Recent deep learning approaches for representation learning on graphs follow a neighborhood aggregation procedure. We analyze some important properties of these models, and propose a strategy to overcome those. In particular, the range of ‘neighboring’ nodes that a node’s representation draws from strongly depends on the graph structure, analogous to the spread of a random walk. To adapt to local neighborhood properties and tasks, we explore an architecture — jumping knowledge (JK) networks — that flexibly leverages, for each node, different neighborhood ranges to enable better structure-aware representation. In a number of experiments on social, bioinformatics and citation networks, we demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, combining the JK framework with models like Graph Convolutional Networks, GraphSAGE and Graph Attention Networks consistently improves those models’ performance. … **Word Embedding Attention Network (WEAN)**

Most recent approaches use the sequence-to-sequence model for paraphrase generation. The existing sequence-to-sequence model tends to memorize the words and the patterns in the training dataset instead of learning the meaning of the words. Therefore, the generated sentences are often grammatically correct but semantically improper. In this work, we introduce a novel model based on the encoder-decoder framework, called Word Embedding Attention Network (WEAN). Our proposed model generates the words by querying distributed word representations (i.e. neural word embeddings), hoping to capturing the meaning of the according words. Following previous work, we evaluate our model on two paraphrase-oriented tasks, namely text simplification and short text abstractive summarization. Experimental results show that our model outperforms the sequence-to-sequence baseline by the BLEU score of 6.3 and 5.5 on two English text simplification datasets, and the ROUGE-2 F1 score of 5.7 on a Chinese summarization dataset. Moreover, our model achieves state-of-the-art performances on these three benchmark datasets. … **Small Sample Learning (SSL)**

As a promising area in artificial intelligence, a new learning paradigm, called Small Sample Learning (SSL), has been attracting prominent research attention in the recent years. In this paper, we aim to present a survey to comprehensively introduce the current techniques proposed on this topic. Specifically, current SSL techniques can be mainly divided into two categories. The first category of SSL approaches can be called ‘concept learning’, which emphasizes learning new concepts from only few related observations. The purpose is mainly to simulate human learning behaviors like recognition, generation, imagination, synthesis and analysis. The second category is called ‘experience learning’, which usually co-exists with the large sample learning manner of conventional machine learning. This category mainly focuses on learning with insufficient samples, and can also be called small data learning in some literatures. More extensive surveys on both categories of SSL techniques are introduced and some neuroscience evidences are provided to clarify the rationality of the entire SSL regime, and the relationship with human learning process. Some discussions on the main challenges and possible future research directions along this line are also presented. …

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