**Structured Set Matching Network (SSMN)**

Diagrams often depict complex phenomena and serve as a good test bed for visual and textual reasoning. However, understanding diagrams using natural image understanding approaches requires large training datasets of diagrams, which are very hard to obtain. Instead, this can be addressed as a matching problem either between labeled diagrams, images or both. This problem is very challenging since the absence of significant color and texture renders local cues ambiguous and requires global reasoning. We consider the problem of one-shot part labeling: labeling multiple parts of an object in a target image given only a single source image of that category. For this set-to-set matching problem, we introduce the Structured Set Matching Network (SSMN), a structured prediction model that incorporates convolutional neural networks. The SSMN is trained using global normalization to maximize local match scores between corresponding elements and a global consistency score among all matched elements, while also enforcing a matching constraint between the two sets. The SSMN significantly outperforms several strong baselines on three label transfer scenarios: diagram-to-diagram, evaluated on a new diagram dataset of over 200 categories; image-to-image, evaluated on a dataset built on top of the Pascal Part Dataset; and image-to-diagram, evaluated on transferring labels across these datasets. … **Non-Deterministic Inference Framework**

A random set is a generalisation of a random variable, i.e. a set-valued random variable. The random set theory allows a unification of other uncertainty descriptions such as interval variable, mass belief function in Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, possibility theory, and set of probability distributions. The aim of this work is to develop a non-deterministic inference framework, including theory, approximation and sampling method, that deals with the inverse problems in which uncertainty is represented using random sets. The proposed inference method yields the posterior random set based on the intersection of the prior and the measurement induced random sets. That inference method is an extension of Dempster’s rule of combination, and a generalisation of Bayesian inference as well. A direct evaluation of the posterior random set might be impractical. We approximate the posterior random set by a random discrete set whose domain is the set of samples generated using a proposed probability distribution. We use the capacity transform density function of the posterior random set for this proposed distribution. This function has a special property: it is the posterior density function yielded by Bayesian inference of the capacity transform density function of the prior random set. The samples of such proposed probability distribution can be directly obtained using the methods developed in the Bayesian inference framework. With this approximation method, the evaluation of the posterior random set becomes tractable. … **Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE)**

Commonsense knowledge is paramount to enable intelligent systems. Typically, it is characterized as being implicit and ambiguous, hindering thereby the automation of its acquisition. To address these challenges, this paper presents semantically enhanced models to enable reasoning through resolving part of commonsense ambiguity. The proposed models enhance in a knowledge graph embedding (KGE) framework for knowledge base completion. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the new semantic models in commonsense reasoning.

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) aims to find low dimensional vector representations of entities and relations so that their similarities can be quantized. Scoring functions (SFs), which are used to build a model to measure the similarity between entities based on a given relation, have developed as the crux of KGE.

AutoKGE: Searching Scoring Functions for Knowledge Graph Embedding … **DeepCaps**

Capsule Network is a promising concept in deep learning, yet its true potential is not fully realized thus far, providing sub-par performance on several key benchmark datasets with complex data. Drawing intuition from the success achieved by Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) by going deeper, we introduce DeepCaps1, a deep capsule network architecture which uses a novel 3D convolution based dynamic routing algorithm. With DeepCaps, we surpass the state-of-the-art results in the capsule network domain on CIFAR10, SVHN and Fashion MNIST, while achieving a 68% reduction in the number of parameters. Further, we propose a class-independent decoder network, which strengthens the use of reconstruction loss as a regularization term. This leads to an interesting property of the decoder, which allows us to identify and control the physical attributes of the images represented by the instantiation parameters. …

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