**Deep Fundamental Factor Models**

Deep fundamental factor models are developed to interpret and capture non-linearity, interaction effects and non-parametric shocks in financial econometrics. Uncertainty quantification provides interpretability with interval estimation, ranking of factor importances and estimation of interaction effects. Estimating factor realizations under either homoscedastic or heteroscedastic error is also available. With no hidden layers we recover a linear factor model and for one or more hidden layers, uncertainty bands for the sensitivity to each input naturally arise from the network weights. To illustrate our methodology, we construct a six-factor model of assets in the S\&P 500 index and generate information ratios that are three times greater than generalized linear regression. We show that the factor importances are materially different from the linear factor model when accounting for non-linearity. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research … **Selective Prediction**

We consider a model of selective prediction, where the prediction algorithm is given a data sequence in an online fashion and asked to predict a pre-specified statistic of the upcoming data points. The algorithm is allowed to choose when to make the prediction as well as the length of the prediction window, possibly depending on the observations so far. We prove that, even without any distributional assumption on the input data stream, a large family of statistics can be estimated to non-trivial accuracy. To give one concrete example, suppose that we are given access to an arbitrary binary sequence $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ of length $n$. Our goal is to accurately predict the average observation, and we are allowed to choose the window over which the prediction is made: for some $t < n$ and $m \le n – t$, after seeing $t$ observations we predict the average of $x_{t+1}, \ldots, x_{t+m}$. We show that the expected squared error of our prediction can be bounded by $O\left(\frac{1}{\log n}\right)$, and prove a matching lower bound. This result holds for any sequence (that is not adaptive to when the prediction is made, or the predicted value), and the expectation of the error is with respect to the randomness of the prediction algorithm. Our results apply to more general statistics of a sequence of observations, and we highlight several open directions for future work. … **Workload-Aware Auto-Parallelization Framework (WAP)**

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have emerged as successful solutions for variety of artificial intelligence applications, but their very large and deep models impose high computational requirements during training. Multi-GPU parallelization is a popular option to accelerate demanding computations in DNN training, but most state-of-the-art multi-GPU deep learning frameworks not only require users to have an in-depth understanding of the implementation of the frameworks themselves, but also apply parallelization in a straight-forward way without optimizing GPU utilization. In this work, we propose a workload-aware auto-parallelization framework (WAP) for DNN training, where the work is automatically distributed to multiple GPUs based on the workload characteristics. We evaluate WAP using TensorFlow with popular DNN benchmarks (AlexNet and VGG-16), and show competitive training throughput compared with the state-of-the-art frameworks, and also demonstrate that WAP automatically optimizes GPU assignment based on the workload’s compute requirements, thereby improving energy efficiency. … **Boosting Independent Embeddings Robustly (BIER)**

Learning similarity functions between image pairs with deep neural networks yields highly correlated activations of embeddings. In this work, we show how to improve the robustness of such embeddings by exploiting the independence within ensembles. To this end, we divide the last embedding layer of a deep network into an embedding ensemble and formulate training this ensemble as an online gradient boosting problem. Each learner receives a reweighted training sample from the previous learners. Further, we propose two loss functions which increase the diversity in our ensemble. These loss functions can be applied either for weight initialization or during training. Together, our contributions leverage large embedding sizes more effectively by significantly reducing correlation of the embedding and consequently increase retrieval accuracy of the embedding. Our method works with any differentiable loss function and does not introduce any additional parameters during test time. We evaluate our metric learning method on image retrieval tasks and show that it improves over state-of-the-art methods on the CUB 200-2011, Cars-196, Stanford Online Products, In-Shop Clothes Retrieval and VehicleID datasets. …

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