Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are temporal networks and cumulative in nature that have shown promising results in various natural language processing tasks. Despite their success, it still remains a challenge to understand their hidden behavior. In this work, we analyze and interpret the cumulative nature of RNN via a proposed technique named as Layer-wIse-Semantic-Accumulation (LISA) for explaining decisions and detecting the most likely (i.e., saliency) patterns that the network relies on while decision making. We demonstrate (1) LISA: ‘How an RNN accumulates or builds semantics during its sequential processing for a given text example and expected response’ (2) Example2pattern: ‘How the saliency patterns look like for each category in the data according to the network in decision making’. We analyse the sensitiveness of RNNs about different inputs to check the increase or decrease in prediction scores and further extract the saliency patterns learned by the network. We employ two relation classification datasets: SemEval 10 Task 8 and TAC KBP Slot Filling to explain RNN predictions via the LISA and example2pattern. …
Composition Assistance for Photo Taking (CAPTAIN)
Many people are interested in taking astonishing photos and sharing with others. Emerging hightech hardware and software facilitate ubiquitousness and functionality of digital photography. Because composition matters in photography, researchers have leveraged some common composition techniques to assess the aesthetic quality of photos computationally. However, composition techniques developed by professionals are far more diverse than well-documented techniques can cover. We leverage the vast underexplored innovations in photography for computational composition assistance. We propose a comprehensive framework, named CAPTAIN (Composition Assistance for Photo Taking), containing integrated deep-learned semantic detectors, sub-genre categorization, artistic pose clustering, personalized aesthetics-based image retrieval, and style set matching. The framework is backed by a large dataset crawled from a photo-sharing Website with mostly photography enthusiasts and professionals. The work proposes a sequence of steps that have not been explored in the past by researchers. The work addresses personal preferences for composition through presenting a ranked-list of photographs to the user based on user-specified weights in the similarity measure. The matching algorithm recognizes the best shot among a sequence of shots with respect to the user’s preferred style set. We have conducted a number of experiments on the newly proposed components and reported findings. A user study demonstrates that the work is useful to those taking photos. …
REtrospective and PRospective Inference SchEme (REPRISE)
We introduce a dynamic artificial neural network-based (ANN) adaptive inference process, which learns temporal predictive models of dynamical systems. We term the process REPRISE, a REtrospective and PRospective Inference SchEme. REPRISE infers the unobservable contextual state that best explains its recently encountered sensorimotor experiences as well as accompanying, context-dependent temporal predictive models retrospectively. Meanwhile, it executes prospective inference, optimizing upcoming motor activities in a goal-directed manner. In a first implementation, a recurrent neural network (RNN) is trained to learn a temporal forward model, which predicts the sensorimotor contingencies of different simulated dynamic vehicles. The RNN is augmented with contextual neurons, which enable the compact encoding of distinct, but related sensorimotor dynamics. We show that REPRISE is able to concurrently learn to separate and approximate the encountered sensorimotor dynamics. Moreover, we show that REPRISE can exploit the learned model to induce goal-directed, model-predictive control, that is, approximate active inference: Given a goal state, the system imagines a motor command sequence optimizing it with the prospective objective to minimize the distance to a given goal. Meanwhile, the system evaluates the encountered sensorimotor contingencies retrospectively, adapting its neural hidden states for maintaining model coherence. The RNN activities thus continuously imagine the upcoming future and reflect on the recent past, optimizing both, hidden state and motor activities. In conclusion, the combination of temporal predictive structures with modulatory, generative encodings offers a way to develop compact event codes, which selectively activate particular types of sensorimotor event-specific dynamics. …
Mixed Membership Models (MMM)
… We have reviewed and seen mixture models in detail. And we’ve seen hierarchical models-particularly those that capture nested structure in the data.
1. We will now combine these ideas to form mixed membership models, which is a powerful modeling methodology.
2. The basic ideas are
· Data are grouped.
· Each group is modeled with a mixture.
· The mixture components are shared across all the groups.
· The mixture proportions are vary from group to group. … …