**Robotic Process Automation (RPA)**

Robotic process automation (or RPA) is an emerging form of clerical process automation technology based on the notion of software robots or artificial intelligence (AI) workers. A software ‘robot’ is a software application that replicates the actions of a human being interacting with the user interface of a computer system. For example, the execution of data entry into an ERP system – or indeed a full end-to-end business process – would be a typical activity for a software robot. The software robot operates on the user interface (UI) in the same way that a human would; this is a significant departure from traditional forms of IT integration which have historically been based on Application Programming Interfaces (or APIs) – that is to say, machine-to-machine forms of communication based on data layers which operate at an architectural layer beneath the UI. … **Covariate Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model (c-GPLVM)**

Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) and Gaussian Process Latent Variable Models (GPLVM) offer a principled way of performing probabilistic non-linear regression and dimensionality reduction. In this paper we propose a hybrid between the two, the covariate-GPLVM (c-GPLVM), to perform dimensionality reduction in the presence of covariate information (e.g. continuous covariates, class labels, or censored survival times). This construction lets us adjust for covariate effects and reveals meaningful latent structure which is not revealed when using GPLVM. Furthermore, we introduce structured decomposable kernels which will let us interpret how the fixed and latent inputs contribute to feature-level variation, e.g. identify the presence of a non-linear interaction. We demonstrate the utility of this model on applications in disease progression modelling from high-dimensional gene expression data in the presence of additional phenotypes. … **Memory-Limited Online Subspace Estimation Scheme (MOSES)**

This paper introduces Memory-limited Online Subspace Estimation Scheme (MOSES) for both estimating the principal components of data and reducing its dimension. More specifically, consider a scenario where the data vectors are presented sequentially to a user who has limited storage and processing time available, for example in the context of sensor networks. In this scenario, MOSES maintains an estimate of leading principal components of the data that has arrived so far and also reduces its dimension. In terms of its origins, MOSES slightly generalises the popular incremental Singular Vale Decomposition (SVD) to handle thin blocks of data. This simple generalisation is in part what allows us to complement MOSES with a comprehensive statistical analysis that is not available for incremental SVD, despite its empirical success. This generalisation also enables us to concretely interpret MOSES as an approximate solver for the underlying non-convex optimisation program. We also find that MOSES shows state-of-the-art performance in our numerical experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets. … **Stein´s Paradox**

Stein’s example (or phenomenon or paradox), in decision theory and estimation theory, is the phenomenon that when three or more parameters are estimated simultaneously, there exist combined estimators more accurate on average (that is, having lower expected mean-squared error) than any method that handles the parameters separately.

An intuitive explanation is that optimizing for the mean-squared error of a combined estimator is not the same as optimizing for the errors of separate estimators of the individual parameters. In practical terms, if the combined error is in fact of interest, then a combined estimator should be used, even if the underlying parameters are independent; this occurs in channel estimation in telecommunications, for instance (different factors affect overall channel performance). On the other hand, if one is instead interested in estimating an individual parameter, then using a combined estimator does not help and is in fact worse.

…

# If you did not already know

**22**
*Thursday*
Jul 2021

Posted What is ...

in