**Individual Bayes Imbalance Impact Index (IBI^3)**

Recent studies have shown that imbalance ratio is not the only cause of the performance loss of a classifier in imbalanced data classification. In fact, other data factors, such as small disjuncts, noises and overlapping, also play the roles in tandem with imbalance ratio, which makes the problem difficult. Thus far, the empirical studies have demonstrated the relationship between the imbalance ratio and other data factors only. To the best of our knowledge, there is no any measurement about the extent of influence of class imbalance on the classification performance of imbalanced data. Further, it is also unknown for a dataset which data factor is actually the main barrier for classification. In this paper, we focus on Bayes optimal classifier and study the influence of class imbalance from a theoretical perspective. Accordingly, we propose an instance measure called Individual Bayes Imbalance Impact Index ($IBI^3$) and a data measure called Bayes Imbalance Impact Index ($BI^3$). $IBI^3$ and $BI^3$ reflect the extent of influence purely by the factor of imbalance in terms of each minority class sample and the whole dataset, respectively. Therefore, $IBI^3$ can be used as an instance complexity measure of imbalance and $BI^3$ is a criterion to show the degree of how imbalance deteriorates the classification. As a result, we can therefore use $BI^3$ to judge whether it is worth using imbalance recovery methods like sampling or cost-sensitive methods to recover the performance loss of a classifier. The experiments show that $IBI^3$ is highly consistent with the increase of prediction score made by the imbalance recovery methods and $BI^3$ is highly consistent with the improvement of F1 score made by the imbalance recovery methods on both synthetic and real benchmark datasets. … **Partial Adversarial Domain Adaptation (PADA)**

Domain adversarial learning aligns the feature distributions across the source and target domains in a two-player minimax game. Existing domain adversarial networks generally assume identical label space across different domains. In the presence of big data, there is strong motivation of transferring deep models from existing big domains to unknown small domains. This paper introduces partial domain adaptation as a new domain adaptation scenario, which relaxes the fully shared label space assumption to that the source label space subsumes the target label space. Previous methods typically match the whole source domain to the target domain, which are vulnerable to negative transfer for the partial domain adaptation problem due to the large mismatch between label spaces. We present Partial Adversarial Domain Adaptation (PADA), which simultaneously alleviates negative transfer by down-weighing the data of outlier source classes for training both source classifier and domain adversary, and promotes positive transfer by matching the feature distributions in the shared label space. Experiments show that PADA exceeds state-of-the-art results for partial domain adaptation tasks on several datasets. … **Inexact Variant of SARAH (iSARAH)**

We develop and analyze a variant of variance reducing stochastic gradient algorithm, known as SARAH, which does not require computation of the exact gradient. Thus this new method can be applied to general expectation minimization problems rather than only finite sum problems. While the original SARAH algorithm, as well as its predecessor, SVRG, require an exact gradient computation on each outer iteration, the inexact variant of SARAH (iSARAH), which we develop here, requires only stochastic gradient computed on a mini-batch of sufficient size. The proposed method combines variance reduction via sample size selection and iterative stochastic gradient updates. We analyze the convergence rate of the algorithms for strongly convex, convex, and nonconvex cases with appropriate mini-batch size selected for each case. We show that with an additional, reasonable, assumption iSARAH achieves the best known complexity among stochastic methods in the case of general convex case stochastic value functions. … **Hurst Exponent**

The Hurst exponent is used as a measure of long-term memory of time series. It relates to the autocorrelations of the time series, and the rate at which these decrease as the lag between pairs of values increases. Studies involving the Hurst exponent were originally developed in hydrology for the practical matter of determining optimum dam sizing for the Nile river’s volatile rain and drought conditions that had been observed over a long period of time. The name ‘Hurst exponent’, or ‘Hurst coefficient’, derives from Harold Edwin Hurst (1880-1978), who was the lead researcher in these studies; the use of the standard notation H for the coefficient relates to his name also. In fractal geometry, the generalized Hurst exponent has been denoted by H or Hq in honor of both Harold Edwin Hurst and Ludwig Otto Hölder (1859-1937) by Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-2010). H is directly related to fractal dimension, D, and is a measure of a data series’ ‘mild’ or ‘wild’ randomness. The Hurst exponent is referred to as the ‘index of dependence’ or ‘index of long-range dependence’. It quantifies the relative tendency of a time series either to regress strongly to the mean or to cluster in a direction. A value H in the range 0.5-1 indicates a time series with long-term positive autocorrelation, meaning both that a high value in the series will probably be followed by another high value and that the values a long time into the future will also tend to be high. A value in the range 0 – 0.5 indicates a time series with long-term switching between high and low values in adjacent pairs, meaning that a single high value will probably be followed by a low value and that the value after that will tend to be high, with this tendency to switch between high and low values lasting a long time into the future. A value of H=0.5 can indicate a completely uncorrelated series, but in fact it is the value applicable to series for which the autocorrelations at small time lags can be positive or negative but where the absolute values of the autocorrelations decay exponentially quickly to zero. This in contrast to the typically power law decay for the 0.5 < H < 1 and 0 < H < 0.5 cases. …

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