**SGAN**

The Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have demonstrated impressive performance for data synthesis, and are now used in a wide range of computer vision tasks. In spite of this success, they gained a reputation for being difficult to train, what results in a time-consuming and human-involved development process to use them. We consider an alternative training process, named SGAN, in which several adversarial ‘local’ pairs of networks are trained independently so that a ‘global’ supervising pair of networks can be trained against them. The goal is to train the global pair with the corresponding ensemble opponent for improved performances in terms of mode coverage. This approach aims at increasing the chances that learning will not stop for the global pair, preventing both to be trapped in an unsatisfactory local minimum, or to face oscillations often observed in practice. To guarantee the latter, the global pair never affects the local ones. The rules of SGAN training are thus as follows: the global generator and discriminator are trained using the local discriminators and generators, respectively, whereas the local networks are trained with their fixed local opponent. Experimental results on both toy and real-world problems demonstrate that this approach outperforms standard training in terms of better mitigating mode collapse, stability while converging and that it surprisingly, increases the convergence speed as well. … **Expert-Augmented Machine Learning (EAML)**

Machine Learning is proving invaluable across disciplines. However, its successis often limited by the quality and quantity of available data, while its adoption by the level of trust that models afford users. Human vs. machine performance is commonly compared empirically to decide whether a certain task should be performed by a computer or an expert. In reality, the optimal learning strategy may involve combining the complementary strengths of man and machine. Here we present Expert-Augmented Machine Learning (EAML), an automated method that guides the extraction of expert knowledge and its integration into machine-learned models. We use a large dataset of intensive care patient data to predict mortality and show that we can extract expert knowledge using an online platform, help reveal hidden confounders, improve generalizability ona different population and learn using less data. EAML presents a novel framework for high performance and dependable machine learning in critical applications. … **Multiple Independent Subspace Clustering (MISC)**

Multiple clustering aims at discovering diverse ways of organizing data into clusters. Despite the progress made, it’s still a challenge for users to analyze and understand the distinctive structure of each output clustering. To ease this process, we consider diverse clusterings embedded in different subspaces, and analyze the embedding subspaces to shed light into the structure of each clustering. To this end, we provide a two-stage approach called MISC (Multiple Independent Subspace Clusterings). In the first stage, MISC uses independent subspace analysis to seek multiple and statistical independent (i.e. non-redundant) subspaces, and determines the number of subspaces via the minimum description length principle. In the second stage, to account for the intrinsic geometric structure of samples embedded in each subspace, MISC performs graph regularized semi-nonnegative matrix factorization to explore clusters. It additionally integrates the kernel trick into matrix factorization to handle non-linearly separable clusters. Experimental results on synthetic datasets show that MISC can find different interesting clusterings from the sought independent subspaces, and it also outperforms other related and competitive approaches on real-world datasets. … **Fractal AI**

Fractal AI is a theory for general artificial intelligence. It allows to derive new mathematical tools that constitute the foundations for a new kind of stochastic calculus, by modelling information using cellular automaton-like structures instead of smooth functions. In the repository included we are presenting a new Agent, derived from the first principles of the theory, which is capable of solving Atari games several orders of magnitude more efficiently than other similar techniques, like Monte Carlo Tree Search. The code provided shows how it is now possible to beat some of the current state of the art benchmarks on Atari games, without previous learning and using less than 1000 samples to calculate each one of the actions when standard MCTS uses 3 Million samples. Among other things, Fractal AI makes it possible to generate a huge database of top performing examples with very little amount of computation required, transforming Reinforcement Learning into a supervised problem. The algorithm presented is capable of solving the exploration vs exploitation dilemma on both the discrete and continuous cases, while maintaining control over any aspect of the behavior of the Agent. From a general approach, new techniques presented here have direct applications to other areas such as: Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, chemistry, quantum physics, economics, information theory, and non-linear control theory. …

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Jun 2021

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