**CONVERGE-FAST-AUXNET**

In this paper, we introduce an innovative method to improve the convergence speed and accuracy of object detection neural networks. Our approach, CONVERGE-FAST-AUXNET, is based on employing multiple, dependent loss metrics and weighting them optimally using an on-line trained auxiliary network. Experiments are performed in the well-known RoboCup@Work challenge environment. A fully convolutional segmentation network is trained on detecting objects’ pickup points. We empirically obtain an approximate measure for the rate of success of a robotic pickup operation based on the accuracy of the object detection network. Our experiments show that adding an optimally weighted Euclidean distance loss to a network trained on the commonly used Intersection over Union (IoU) metric reduces the convergence time by 42.48%. The estimated pickup rate is improved by 39.90%. Compared to state-of-the-art task weighting methods, the improvement is 24.5% in convergence, and 15.8% on the estimated pickup rate. … **Tag-Guided HyperRecNN/TreeLSTM (TG-HRecNN/TreeLSTM)**

Recursive Neural Network (RecNN), a type of models which compose words or phrases recursively over syntactic tree structures, has been proven to have superior ability to obtain sentence representation for a variety of NLP tasks. However, RecNN is born with a thorny problem that a shared compositional function for each node of trees can’t capture the complex semantic compositionality so that the expressive power of model is limited. In this paper, in order to address this problem, we propose Tag-Guided HyperRecNN/TreeLSTM (TG-HRecNN/TreeLSTM), which introduces hypernetwork into RecNNs to take as inputs Part-of-Speech (POS) tags of word/phrase and generate the semantic composition parameters dynamically. Experimental results on five datasets for two typical NLP tasks show proposed models both obtain significant improvement compared with RecNN and TreeLSTM consistently. Our TG-HTreeLSTM outperforms all existing RecNN-based models and achieves or is competitive with state-of-the-art on four sentence classification benchmarks. The effectiveness of our models is also demonstrated by qualitative analysis. … **Linear Attention Recurrent Neural Network (LARNN)**

The Linear Attention Recurrent Neural Network (LARNN) is a recurrent attention module derived from the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) cell and ideas from the consciousness Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Yes, it LARNNs. The LARNN uses attention on its past cell state values for a limited window size $k$. The formulas are also derived from the Batch Normalized LSTM (BN-LSTM) cell and the Transformer Network for its Multi-Head Attention Mechanism. The Multi-Head Attention Mechanism is used inside the cell such that it can query its own $k$ past values with the attention window. This has the effect of augmenting the rank of the tensor with the attention mechanism, such that the cell can perform complex queries to question its previous inner memories, which should augment the long short-term effect of the memory. With a clever trick, the LARNN cell with attention can be easily used inside a loop on the cell state, just like how any other Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) cell can be looped linearly through time series. This is due to the fact that its state, which is looped upon throughout time steps within time series, stores the inner states in a ‘first in, first out’ queue which contains the $k$ most recent states and on which it is easily possible to add static positional encoding when the queue is represented as a tensor. This neural architecture yields better results than the vanilla LSTM cells. It can obtain results of 91.92% for the test accuracy, compared to the previously attained 91.65% using vanilla LSTM cells. Note that this is not to compare to other research, where up to 93.35% is obtained, but costly using 18 LSTM cells rather than with 2 to 3 cells as analyzed here. Finally, an interesting discovery is made, such that adding activation within the multi-head attention mechanism’s linear layers can yield better results in the context researched hereto. … **Max-Mahalanobis Linear Discriminant Analysis (MM-LDA)**

A deep neural network (DNN) consists of a nonlinear transformation from an input to a feature representation, followed by a common softmax linear classifier. Though many efforts have been devoted to designing a proper architecture for nonlinear transformation, little investigation has been done on the classifier part. In this paper, we show that a properly designed classifier can improve robustness to adversarial attacks and lead to better prediction results. Specifically, we define a Max-Mahalanobis distribution (MMD) and theoretically show that if the input distributes as a MMD, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier will have the best robustness to adversarial examples. We further propose a novel Max-Mahalanobis linear discriminant analysis (MM-LDA) network, which explicitly maps a complicated data distribution in the input space to a MMD in the latent feature space and then applies LDA to make predictions. Our results demonstrate that the MM-LDA networks are significantly more robust to adversarial attacks, and have better performance in class-biased classification. …

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May 2021

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