**Error-Correcting Output Codes – Neural Language Modelling (ECOC-NLM)**

In this paper we propose a novel neural language modelling (NLM) method based on \textit{error-correcting output codes} (ECOC), abbreviated as ECOC-NLM (error-correcting output codes – neural language modelling). This latent variable based approach provides a principled way to choose a varying amount of latent output codes and avoids exact softmax normalization. Instead of minimizing measures between the predicted probability distribution and true distribution, we use error-correcting codes to represent both predictions and outputs. Secondly, we propose multiple ways to improve accuracy and convergence rates by maximizing the separability between codes that correspond to classes proportional to word embedding similarities. Lastly, we introduce a novel method called \textit{Latent Mixture Sampling}, a technique that is used to mitigate exposure bias and can be integrated into training latent-based neural language models. This involves mixing the latent codes (i.e variables) of past predictions and past targets in one of two ways: (1) according to a predefined sampling schedule or (2) a differentiable sampling procedure whereby the mixing probability is learned throughout training by replacing the greedy argmax operation with a smooth approximation. In evaluating Codeword Mixture Sampling for ECOC-NLM, we also baseline it against CWMS in a closely related Hierarhical Softmax-based NLM. … **Fast and Asymptotically efficient Distributed Estimator (FADE)**

Consider a set of agents that wish to estimate a vector of parameters of their mutual interest. For this estimation goal, agents can sense and communicate. When sensing, an agent measures (in additive gaussian noise) linear combinations of the unknown vector of parameters. When communicating, an agent can broadcast information to a few other agents, by using the channels that happen to be randomly at its disposal at the time. To coordinate the agents towards their estimation goal, we propose a novel algorithm called FADE (Fast and Asymptotically efficient Distributed Estimator), in which agents collaborate at discrete time-steps; at each time-step, agents sense and communicate just once, while also updating their own estimate of the unknown vector of parameters. FADE enjoys five attractive features: first, it is an intuitive estimator, simple to derive; second, it withstands dynamic networks, that is, networks whose communication channels change randomly over time; third, it is strongly consistent in that, as time-steps play out, each agent’s local estimate converges (almost surely) to the true vector of parameters; fourth, it is both asymptotically unbiased and efficient, which means that, across time, each agent’s estimate becomes unbiased and the mean-square error (MSE) of each agent’s estimate vanishes to zero at the same rate of the MSE of the optimal estimator at an almighty central node; fifth, and most importantly, when compared with a state-of-art consensus+innovation (CI) algorithm, it yields estimates with outstandingly lower mean-square errors, for the same number of communications — for example, in a sparsely connected network model with 50 agents, we find through numerical simulations that the reduction can be dramatic, reaching several orders of magnitude. … **Entropy**

In information theory, entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a random variable. In this context, the term usually refers to the Shannon entropy, which quantifies the expected value of the information contained in a message. Entropy is typically measured in bits, nats, or bans. Shannon entropy is the average unpredictability in a random variable, which is equivalent to its information content. Shannon entropy provides an absolute limit on the best possible lossless encoding or compression of any communication, assuming that the communication may be represented as a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables. … **Regression Analysis**

In statistics, regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables. It includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable (or ‘criterion variable’) changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed. Most commonly, regression analysis estimates the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the independent variables – that is, the average value of the dependent variable when the independent variables are fixed. Less commonly, the focus is on a quantile, or other location parameter of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the independent variables. In all cases, the estimation target is a function of the independent variables called the regression function. In regression analysis, it is also of interest to characterize the variation of the dependent variable around the regression function which can be described by a probability distribution. …

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