**Hierarchical Navigation Reinforcement Network (HNRN)**

This paper proposes a navigation algorithm oriented to multi-agent dynamic environment. The algorithm is expressed as a hierarchical framework which contains a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). For simplification, we term our method Hierarchical Navigation Reinforcement Network (HNRN). In high-level architecture, we train an HMM to evaluate agents environment in order to obtain a score. According to this score, adaptive control action will be chosen. While in low-level architecture, two sub-systems are introduced, one is a differential target-driven system, which aims at heading to the target, the other is collision avoidance DRL system, which is used for avoiding obstacles in the dynamic environment. The advantage of this hierarchical system is to decouple the target-driven and collision avoidance tasks, leading to a faster and easier model to be trained. As the experiments manifest, our algorithm has faster learning efficiency and a higher success rate than traditional Velocity Obstacle (VO) algorithms and hybrid DRL method. … **TOPSIS**

The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is a multi-criteria decision analysis method, which was originally developed by Ching-Lai Hwang and Yoon in 1981 with further developments by Yoon in 1987, and Hwang, Lai and Liu in 1993. TOPSIS is based on the concept that the chosen alternative should have the shortest geometric distance from the positive ideal solution (PIS) and the longest geometric distance from the negative ideal solution (NIS). … **Neural Turing Machines (NTM)**

We extend the capabilities of neural networks by coupling them to external memory resources, which they can interact with by attentional processes. The combined system is analogous to a Turing Machine or Von Neumann architecture but is differentiable end-to-end, allowing it to be efficiently trained with gradient descent. Preliminary results demonstrate that Neural Turing Machines can infer simple algorithms such as copying, sorting, and associative recall from input and output examples. Neural Turing Machines are fully differentiable computers that use backpropagation to learn their own programming. … **Relation Network (RN)**

We present a conceptually simple, flexible, and general framework for few-shot learning, where a classifier must learn to recognise new classes given only few examples from each. Our method, called the Relation Network (RN), is trained end-to-end from scratch. During meta-learning, it learns to learn a deep distance metric to compare a small number of images within episodes, each of which is designed to simulate the few-shot setting. Once trained, a RN is able to classify images of new classes by computing relation scores between query images and the few examples of each new class without further updating the network. Besides providing improved performance on few-shot learning, our framework is easily extended to zero-shot learning. Extensive experiments on four datasets demonstrate that our simple approach provides a unified and effective approach for both of these two tasks. …

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Mar 2021

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