**Algorithmic Complexity (AC)**

The information content or complexity of an object can be measured by the length of its shortest description. For instance the string “01010101010101010101010101010101” has the short description “16 repetitions of 01”, while “11001000011000011101111011101100” presumably has no simpler description other than writing down the string itself. More formally, the Algorithmic “Kolmogorov” Complexity (AC) of a string x is defined as the length of the shortest program that computes or outputs x , where the program is run on some fixed reference universal computer. … **LISTwise ExplaiNer (LISTEN)**

There is an increasing demand for algorithms to explain their outcomes. So far, there is no method that explains the rankings produced by a ranking algorithm. To address this gap we propose LISTEN, a LISTwise ExplaiNer, to explain rankings produced by a ranking algorithm. To efficiently use LISTEN in production, we train a neural network to learn the underlying explanation space created by LISTEN; we call this model Q-LISTEN. We show that LISTEN produces faithful explanations and that Q-LISTEN is able to learn these explanations. Moreover, we show that LISTEN is safe to use in a real world environment: users of a news recommendation system do not behave significantly differently when they are exposed to explanations generated by LISTEN instead of manually generated explanations. … **Bounded Dijkstra (BD)**

The shortest path (SP) and shortest paths tree (SPT) problems arise both as direct applications and as subroutines of overlay algorithms solving more complex problems such as the constrained shortest path (CSP) or the constrained minimum Steiner tree (CMST) problems. Often, such algorithms do not use the result of an SP subroutine if its total cost is greater than a given bound. For example, for delay-constrained problems, paths resulting from a least-delay SP run and whose delay is greater than the delay constraint of the original problem are not used by the overlay algorithm to construct its solution. As a result of the existence of these bounds, and because the Dijkstra SP algorithm discovers paths in increasing order of cost, we can terminate the SP search earlier, i.e., once it is known that paths with a greater total cost will not be considered by the overlay algorithm. This early termination allows to reduce the runtime of the SP subroutine, thereby reducing the runtime of the overlay algorithm without impacting its final result. We refer to this adaptation of Dijkstra for centralized implementations as bounded Dijkstra (BD). On the example of CSP algorithms, we confirm the usefulness of BD by showing that it can reduce the runtime of some algorithms by 75% on average. … **Dynamic Vocabulary Sequence-to-Sequence (DVS2S)**

We study response generation for open domain conversation in chatbots. Existing methods assume that words in responses are generated from an identical vocabulary regardless of their inputs, which not only makes them vulnerable to generic patterns and irrelevant noise, but also causes a high cost in decoding. We propose a dynamic vocabulary sequence-to-sequence (DVS2S) model which allows each input to possess their own vocabulary in decoding. In training, vocabulary construction and response generation are jointly learned by maximizing a lower bound of the true objective with a Monte Carlo sampling method. In inference, the model dynamically allocates a small vocabulary for an input with the word prediction model, and conducts decoding only with the small vocabulary. Because of the dynamic vocabulary mechanism, DVS2S eludes many generic patterns and irrelevant words in generation, and enjoys efficient decoding at the same time. Experimental results on both automatic metrics and human annotations show that DVS2S can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods in terms of response quality, but only requires 60% decoding time compared to the most efficient baseline. …

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