**Net-Trim**

We develop a fast, tractable technique called Net-Trim for simplifying a trained neural network. The method is a convex post-processing module, which prunes (sparsifies) a trained network layer by layer, while preserving the internal responses. We present a comprehensive analysis of Net-Trim from both the algorithmic and sample complexity standpoints, centered on a fast, scalable convex optimization program. Our analysis includes consistency results between the initial and retrained models before and after Net-Trim application and guarantees on the number of training samples needed to discover a network that can be expressed using a certain number of nonzero terms. Specifically, if there is a set of weights that uses at most $s$ terms that can re-create the layer outputs from the layer inputs, we can find these weights from $\mathcal{O}(s\log N/s)$ samples, where $N$ is the input size. These theoretical results are similar to those for sparse regression using the Lasso, and our analysis uses some of the same recently-developed tools (namely recent results on the concentration of measure and convex analysis). Finally, we propose an algorithmic framework based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), which allows a fast and simple implementation of Net-Trim for network pruning and compression. … **F^3T**

Standard automatic methods for recognizing problematic code can be greatly improved via the incremental application of human+artificial expertise. In this approach, call $F^3T$, AI tools explore software to find commits that they guess is most problematic. Humans the apply their expertise to check that guess (perhaps resulting in the AI updating the support vectors within their SVM learner). We recommend this human+AI partnership, for several reasons. When a new domain is encountered, $F^3T$ can learn better ways to label which comments refer to real problems. Further, in studies with 9 open source software projects, $F^3T$’s incremental application of human+artificial intelligence is at least an order of magnitude cheaper to use than existing methods. Lastly, $F^3T$ is very effective. For the data sets explored here, when compared to standard methods, $F^3T$ improved $P_{opt}(20)$ and G-scores performance by 26\% and 48\% on median value. … **Turek-Fletcher Model**

Model-averaging is commonly used as a means of allowing for model uncertainty in parameter estimation. In the frequentist framework, a model-averaged estimate of a parameter is the weighted mean of the estimates from each of the candidate models, the weights typically being chosen using an information criterion. Current methods for calculating a model-averaged confidence interval assume approximate normality of the model-averaged estimate, i.e., they are Wald intervals. As in the single-model setting, we might improve the coverage performance of this interval by a one-to-one transformation of the parameter, obtaining a Wald interval, and then back-transforming the endpoints. However, a transformation that works in the single-model setting may not when model-averaging, due to the weighting and the need to estimate the weights. In the single-model setting, a natural alternative is to use a profile likelihood interval, which generally provides better coverage than a Wald interval. We propose a method for model-averaging a set of single-model profile likelihood intervals, making use of the link between profile likelihood intervals and Bayesian credible intervals. We illustrate its use in an example involving negative binomial regression, and perform two simulation studies to compare its coverage properties with the existing Wald intervals. … **SpykeTorch**

Application of deep convolutional spiking neural networks (SNNs) to artificial intelligence (AI) tasks has recently gained a lot of interest since SNNs are hardware-friendly and energy-efficient. Unlike the non-spiking counterparts, most of the existing SNN simulation frameworks are not practically efficient enough for large-scale AI tasks. In this paper, we introduce SpykeTorch, an open-source high-speed simulation framework based on PyTorch. This framework simulates convolutional SNNs with at most one spike per neuron and the rank-order encoding scheme. In terms of learning rules, both spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and reward-modulated STDP (R-STDP) are implemented, but other rules could be implemented easily. Apart from the aforementioned properties, SpykeTorch is highly generic and capable of reproducing the results of various studies. Computations in the proposed framework are tensor-based and totally done by PyTorch functions, which in turn brings the ability of just-in-time optimization for running on CPUs, GPUs, or Multi-GPU platforms. …

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