Semantic Weight-Inverse Document Frequency (SW-IDF) google
Time-sync comments reveal a new way of extracting the online video tags. However, such time-sync comments have lots of noises due to users’ diverse comments, introducing great challenges for accurate and fast video tag extractions. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised video tag extraction algorithm named Semantic Weight-Inverse Document Frequency (SW-IDF). Specifically, we first generate corresponding semantic association graph (SAG) using semantic similarities and timestamps of the time-sync comments. Second, we propose two graph cluster algorithms, i.e., dialogue-based algorithm and topic center-based algorithm, to deal with the videos with different density of comments. Third, we design a graph iteration algorithm to assign the weight to each comment based on the degrees of the clustered subgraphs, which can differentiate the meaningful comments from the noises. Finally, we gain the weight of each word by combining Semantic Weight (SW) and Inverse Document Frequency (IDF). In this way, the video tags are extracted automatically in an unsupervised way. Extensive experiments have shown that SW-IDF (dialogue-based algorithm) achieves 0.4210 F1-score and 0.4932 MAP (Mean Average Precision) in high-density comments, 0.4267 F1-score and 0.3623 MAP in low-density comments; while SW-IDF (topic center-based algorithm) achieves 0.4444 F1-score and 0.5122 MAP in high-density comments, 0.4207 F1-score and 0.3522 MAP in low-density comments. It has a better performance than the state-of-the-art unsupervised algorithms in both F1-score and MAP. …

Generalized Kalman Smoothing google
State-space smoothing has found many applications in science and engineering. Under linear and Gaussian assumptions, smoothed estimates can be obtained using efficient recursions, for example Rauch-Tung-Striebel and Mayne-Fraser algorithms. Such schemes are equivalent to linear algebraic techniques that minimize a convex quadratic objective function with structure induced by the dynamic model. These classical formulations fall short in many important circumstances. For instance, smoothers obtained using quadratic penalties can fail when outliers are present in the data, and cannot track impulsive inputs and abrupt state changes. Motivated by these shortcomings, generalized Kalman smoothing formulations have been proposed in the last few years, replacing quadratic models with more suitable, often nonsmooth, convex functions. In contrast to classical models, these general estimators require use of iterated algorithms, and these have received increased attention from control, signal processing, machine learning, and optimization communities. In this survey we show that the optimization viewpoint provides the control and signal processing community great freedom in the development of novel modeling and inference frameworks for dynamical systems. We discuss general statistical models for dynamic systems, making full use of nonsmooth convex penalties and constraints, and providing links to important models in signal processing and machine learning. We also survey optimization techniques for these formulations, paying close attention to dynamic problem structure. Modeling concepts and algorithms are illustrated with numerical examples. …

TreeGAN google
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown great capacity on image generation, in which a discriminative model guides the training of a generative model to construct images that resemble real images. Recently, GANs have been extended from generating images to generating sequences (e.g., poems, music and codes). Existing GANs on sequence generation mainly focus on general sequences, which are grammar-free. In many real-world applications, however, we need to generate sequences in a formal language with the constraint of its corresponding grammar. For example, to test the performance of a database, one may want to generate a collection of SQL queries, which are not only similar to the queries of real users, but also follow the SQL syntax of the target database. Generating such sequences is highly challenging because both the generator and discriminator of GANs need to consider the structure of the sequences and the given grammar in the formal language. To address these issues, we study the problem of syntax-aware sequence generation with GANs, in which a collection of real sequences and a set of pre-defined grammatical rules are given to both discriminator and generator. We propose a novel GAN framework, namely TreeGAN, to incorporate a given Context-Free Grammar (CFG) into the sequence generation process. In TreeGAN, the generator employs a recurrent neural network (RNN) to construct a parse tree. Each generated parse tree can then be translated to a valid sequence of the given grammar. The discriminator uses a tree-structured RNN to distinguish the generated trees from real trees. We show that TreeGAN can generate sequences for any CFG and its generation fully conforms with the given syntax. Experiments on synthetic and real data sets demonstrated that TreeGAN significantly improves the quality of the sequence generation in context-free languages. …

Trigger Detection Dynamic Memory Network (TD-DMN) google
The task of event detection involves identifying and categorizing event triggers. Contextual information has been shown effective on the task. However, existing methods which utilize contextual information only process the context once. We argue that the context can be better exploited by processing the context multiple times, allowing the model to perform complex reasoning and to generate better context representation, thus improving the overall performance. Meanwhile, dynamic memory network (DMN) has demonstrated promising capability in capturing contextual information and has been applied successfully to various tasks. In light of the multi-hop mechanism of the DMN to model the context, we propose the trigger detection dynamic memory network (TD-DMN) to tackle the event detection problem. We performed a five-fold cross-validation on the ACE-2005 dataset and experimental results show that the multi-hop mechanism does improve the performance and the proposed model achieves best $F_1$ score compared to the state-of-the-art methods. …

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