Model Cards google
Trained machine learning models are increasingly used to perform high-impact tasks in areas such as law enforcement, medicine, education, and employment. In order to clarify the intended use cases of machine learning models and minimize their usage in contexts for which they are not well suited, we recommend that released models be accompanied by documentation detailing their performance characteristics. In this paper, we propose a framework that we call model cards, to encourage such transparent model reporting. Model cards are short documents accompanying trained machine learning models that provide benchmarked evaluation in a variety of conditions, such as across different cultural, demographic, or phenotypic groups (e.g., race, geographic location, sex, Fitzpatrick skin type) and intersectional groups (e.g., age and race, or sex and Fitzpatrick skin type) that are relevant to the intended application domains. Model cards also disclose the context in which models are intended to be used, details of the performance evaluation procedures, and other relevant information. While we focus primarily on human-centered machine learning models in the application fields of computer vision and natural language processing, this framework can be used to document any trained machine learning model. To solidify the concept, we provide cards for two supervised models: One trained to detect smiling faces in images, and one trained to detect toxic comments in text. We propose model cards as a step towards the responsible democratization of machine learning and related AI technology, increasing transparency into how well AI technology works. We hope this work encourages those releasing trained machine learning models to accompany model releases with similar detailed evaluation numbers and other relevant documentation. …

DualRE google
Relation extraction is an important task in structuring content of text data, and becomes especially challenging when learning with weak supervision—where only a limited number of labeled sentences are given and a large number of unlabeled sentences are available. Most existing work exploits unlabeled data based on the ideas of self-training (i.e., bootstrapping a model) and multi-view learning (e.g., ensembling multiple model variants). However, these methods either suffer from the issue of semantic drift, or do not fully capture the problem characteristics of relation extraction. In this paper, we leverage a key insight that retrieving sentences expressing a relation is a dual task of predicting relation label for a given sentence—two tasks are complementary to each other and can be optimized jointly for mutual enhancement. To model this intuition, we propose DualRE, a principled framework that introduces a retrieval module which is jointly trained with the original relation prediction module. In this way, high-quality samples selected by retrieval module from unlabeled data can be used to improve prediction module, and vice versa. Experimental results\footnote{\small Code and data can be found at \url{https://…/DualRE}.} on two public datasets as well as case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the DualRE approach. …

Asynchronous Stochastic Gradient Descent google
Distributed machine learning has been widely studied in the literature to scale up machine learning model training in the presence of an ever-increasing amount of data. We study distributed machine learning from another perspective, where the information about the training same samples are inherently decentralized and located on different parities. We propose an asynchronous stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithm for such a feature distributed machine learning (FDML) problem, to jointly learn from decentralized features, with theoretical convergence guarantees under bounded asynchrony. Our algorithm does not require sharing the original feature data or even local model parameters between parties, thus preserving a high level of data confidentiality. We implement our algorithm for FDML in a parameter server architecture. We compare our system with fully centralized training (which violates data locality requirements) and training only based on local features, through extensive experiments performed on a large amount of data from a real-world application, involving 5 million samples and $8700$ features in total. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed FDML system. …

Preference-Informed Individual Fairness (PIIF) google
As algorithms are increasingly used to make important decisions pertaining to individuals, algorithmic discrimination is becoming a prominent concern. The seminal work of Dwork et al. [ITCS 2012] introduced the notion of individual fairness (IF): given a task-specific similarity metric, every pair of similar individuals should receive similar outcomes. In this work, we study fairness when individuals have diverse preferences over the possible outcomes. We show that in such settings, individual fairness can be too restrictive: requiring individual fairness can lead to less-preferred outcomes for the very individuals that IF aims to protect (e.g. a protected minority group). We introduce and study a new notion of preference-informed individual fairness (PIIF), a relaxation of individual fairness that allows for outcomes that deviate from IF, provided the deviations are in line with individuals’ preferences. We show that PIIF can allow for solutions that are considerably more beneficial to individuals than the best IF solution. We further show how to efficiently optimize any convex objective over the outcomes subject to PIIF, for a rich class of individual preferences. Motivated by fairness concerns in targeted advertising, we apply this new fairness notion to the multiple-task setting introduced by Dwork and Ilvento [ITCS 2019]. We show that, in this setting too, PIIF can allow for considerably more beneficial solutions, and we extend our efficient optimization algorithm to this setting. …

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