MetaBags google
Ensembles are popular methods for solving practical supervised learning problems. They reduce the risk of having underperforming models in production-grade software. Although critical, methods for learning heterogeneous regression ensembles have not been proposed at large scale, whereas in classical ML literature, stacking, cascading and voting are mostly restricted to classification problems. Regression poses distinct learning challenges that may result in poor performance, even when using well established homogeneous ensemble schemas such as bagging or boosting. In this paper, we introduce MetaBags, a novel, practically useful stacking framework for regression. MetaBags is a meta-learning algorithm that learns a set of meta-decision trees designed to select one base model (i.e. expert) for each query, and focuses on inductive bias reduction. A set of meta-decision trees are learned using different types of meta-features, specially created for this purpose – to then be bagged at meta-level. This procedure is designed to learn a model with a fair bias-variance trade-off, and its improvement over base model performance is correlated with the prediction diversity of different experts on specific input space subregions. The proposed method and meta-features are designed in such a way that they enable good predictive performance even in subregions of space which are not adequately represented in the available training data. An exhaustive empirical testing of the method was performed, evaluating both generalization error and scalability of the approach on synthetic, open and real-world application datasets. The obtained results show that our method significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art approaches. …

Collaborative Learning google
We introduce collaborative learning in which multiple classifier heads of the same network are simultaneously trained on the same training data to improve generalization and robustness to label noise with no extra inference cost. It acquires the strengths from auxiliary training, multi-task learning and knowledge distillation. There are two important mechanisms involved in collaborative learning. First, the consensus of multiple views from different classifier heads on the same example provides supplementary information as well as regularization to each classifier, thereby improving generalization. Second, intermediate-level representation (ILR) sharing with backpropagation rescaling aggregates the gradient flows from all heads, which not only reduces training computational complexity, but also facilitates supervision to the shared layers. The empirical results on CIFAR and ImageNet datasets demonstrate that deep neural networks learned as a group in a collaborative way significantly reduce the generalization error and increase the robustness to label noise. …

Hyperparameter Optimisation on the Fly google
The performance of policy gradient methods is sensitive to hyperparameter settings that must be tuned for any new application. Widely used grid search methods for tuning hyperparameters are sample inefficient and computationally expensive. More advanced methods like Population Based Training that learn optimal schedules for hyperparameters instead of fixed settings can yield better results, but are also sample inefficient and computationally expensive. In this paper, we propose Hyperparameter Optimisation on the Fly (HOOF), a gradient-free meta-learning algorithm that can automatically learn an optimal schedule for hyperparameters that affect the policy update directly through the gradient. The main idea is to use existing trajectories sampled by the policy gradient method to optimise a one-step improvement objective, yielding a sample and computationally efficient algorithm that is easy to implement. Our experimental results across multiple domains and algorithms show that using HOOF to learn these hyperparameter schedules leads to faster learning with improved performance. …

Cost-aware Cascading Upper Confidence Bound (CC-UCB) google
In this paper, we propose a cost-aware cascading bandits model, a new variant of multi-armed ban- dits with cascading feedback, by considering the random cost of pulling arms. In each step, the learning agent chooses an ordered list of items and examines them sequentially, until certain stopping condition is satisfied. Our objective is then to max- imize the expected net reward in each step, i.e., the reward obtained in each step minus the total cost in- curred in examining the items, by deciding the or- dered list of items, as well as when to stop examina- tion. We study both the offline and online settings, depending on whether the state and cost statistics of the items are known beforehand. For the of- fline setting, we show that the Unit Cost Ranking with Threshold 1 (UCR-T1) policy is optimal. For the online setting, we propose a Cost-aware Cascading Upper Confidence Bound (CC-UCB) algorithm, and show that the cumulative regret scales in O(log T ). We also provide a lower bound for all {\alpha}-consistent policies, which scales in {\Omega}(log T ) and matches our upper bound. The performance of the CC-UCB algorithm is evaluated with both synthetic and real-world data. …

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