Dreaming Variational Autoencoder (DVAE) google
Reinforcement learning has shown great potential in generalizing over raw sensory data using only a single neural network for value optimization. There are several challenges in the current state-of-the-art reinforcement learning algorithms that prevent them from converging towards the global optima. It is likely that the solution to these problems lies in short- and long-term planning, exploration and memory management for reinforcement learning algorithms. Games are often used to benchmark reinforcement learning algorithms as they provide a flexible, reproducible, and easy to control environment. Regardless, few games feature a state-space where results in exploration, memory, and planning are easily perceived. This paper presents The Dreaming Variational Autoencoder (DVAE), a neural network based generative modeling architecture for exploration in environments with sparse feedback. We further present Deep Maze, a novel and flexible maze engine that challenges DVAE in partial and fully-observable state-spaces, long-horizon tasks, and deterministic and stochastic problems. We show initial findings and encourage further work in reinforcement learning driven by generative exploration. …

Random Image Cropping and Patching (RICAP) google
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved remarkable results in image processing tasks. However, their high expression ability risks overfitting. Consequently, data augmentation techniques have been proposed to prevent overfitting while enriching datasets. Recent CNN architectures with more parameters are rendering traditional data augmentation techniques insufficient. In this study, we propose a new data augmentation technique called random image cropping and patching (RICAP) which randomly crops four images and patches them to create a new training image. Moreover, RICAP mixes the class labels of the four images, resulting in an advantage similar to label smoothing. We evaluated RICAP with current state-of-the-art CNNs (e.g., the shake-shake regularization model) by comparison with competitive data augmentation techniques such as cutout and mixup. RICAP achieves a new state-of-the-art test error of $2.19\%$ on CIFAR-10. We also confirmed that deep CNNs with RICAP achieve better results on classification tasks using CIFAR-100 and ImageNet and an image-caption retrieval task using Microsoft COCO. …

cuPC google
The main goal in many fields in empirical sciences is to discover causal relationships among a set of variables from observational data. PC algorithm is one of the promising solutions to learn the underlying causal structure by performing a number of conditional independence tests. In this paper, we propose a novel GPU-based parallel algorithm, called cuPC, to accelerate an order-independent version of PC. The cuPC algorithm has two variants, cuPC-E and cuPC-S, which parallelize conditional independence tests over the pairs of variables under the tests, and over the conditional sets, respectively. In particular, cuPC-E offers two degrees of parallelization by performing tests of multiple pairs of variables and also the tests of each pair in parallel. In the other hand, cuPC-S reuses the results of computations of a test for a given conditional set in other tests on the same conditional set. Experiment results on GTX 1080 GPU show two to three orders of magnitude speedup. For instance, in one of the most challenging benchmarks, cuPC-S reduces the runtime from about 73 hours to about one minute and achieves a significant speedup factor of about 4000 X. …

Seven Pillars of the Causal Revolution google
What you can do with a causal model that you could not do without?
Pillar 1: Encoding Causal Assumptions – Transparency and Testability
Pillar 2: Do-calculus and the control of confounding
Pillar 3: The Algorithmization of Counterfactuals
Pillar 4: Mediation Analysis and the Assessment of Direct and Indirect Effects
Pillar 5: External Validity and Sample Selection Bias
Pillar 6: Missing Data
Pillar 7: Causal Discovery …

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