APPG google
A popular asynchronous protocol for decentralized optimization is randomized gossip where a pair of neighbors concurrently update via pairwise averaging. In practice, this creates deadlocks and is vulnerable to information delays. It can also be problematic if a node is unable to response or has only access to its private-preserved local dataset. To address these issues simultaneously, this paper proposes an asynchronous decentralized algorithm, i.e. APPG, with {\em directed} communication where each node updates {\em asynchronously} and independently of any other node. If local functions are strongly-convex with Lipschitz-continuous gradients, each node of APPG converges to the same optimal solution at a rate of $O(\lambda^k)$, where $\lambda\in(0,1)$ and the virtual counter $k$ increases by 1 no matter on which node updates. The superior performance of APPG is validated on a logistic regression problem against state-of-the-art methods in terms of linear speedup and system implementations. …

K-Competitive Autoencoder for Text (KATE) google
Autoencoders have been successful in learning meaningful representations from image datasets. However, their performance on text datasets has not been widely studied. Traditional autoencoders tend to learn possibly trivial representations of text documents due to their confounding properties such as high-dimensionality, sparsity and power-law word distributions. In this paper, we propose a novel k-competitive autoencoder, called KATE, for text documents. Due to the competition between the neurons in the hidden layer, each neuron becomes specialized in recognizing specific data patterns, and overall the model can learn meaningful representations of textual data. A comprehensive set of experiments show that KATE can learn better representations than traditional autoencoders including denoising, contractive, variational, and k-sparse autoencoders. Our model also outperforms deep generative models, probabilistic topic models, and even word representation models (e.g., Word2Vec) in terms of several downstream tasks such as document classification, regression, and retrieval. …

Recurrent Knowledge Distillation google
Knowledge distillation compacts deep networks by letting a small student network learn from a large teacher network. The accuracy of knowledge distillation recently benefited from adding residual layers. We propose to reduce the size of the student network even further by recasting multiple residual layers in the teacher network into a single recurrent student layer. We propose three variants of adding recurrent connections into the student network, and show experimentally on CIFAR-10, Scenes and MiniPlaces, that we can reduce the number of parameters at little loss in accuracy. …

Predictive, Descriptive, Relevant Framework (PDR) google
Machine-learning models have demonstrated great success in learning complex patterns that enable them to make predictions about unobserved data. In addition to using models for prediction, the ability to interpret what a model has learned is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, this increased focus has led to considerable confusion about the notion of interpretability. In particular, it is unclear how the wide array of proposed interpretation methods are related, and what common concepts can be used to evaluate them. We aim to address these concerns by defining interpretability in the context of machine learning and introducing the Predictive, Descriptive, Relevant (PDR) framework for discussing interpretations. The PDR framework provides three overarching desiderata for evaluation: predictive accuracy, descriptive accuracy and relevancy, with relevancy judged relative to a human audience. Moreover, to help manage the deluge of interpretation methods, we introduce a categorization of existing techniques into model-based and post-hoc categories, with sub-groups including sparsity, modularity and simulatability. To demonstrate how practitioners can use the PDR framework to evaluate and understand interpretations, we provide numerous real-world examples. These examples highlight the often under-appreciated role played by human audiences in discussions of interpretability. Finally, based on our framework, we discuss limitations of existing methods and directions for future work. We hope that this work will provide a common vocabulary that will make it easier for both practitioners and researchers to discuss and choose from the full range of interpretation methods. …

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