Optimized PAtchMatch Label fusion (OPAL) google
Automatic segmentation methods are important tools for quantitative analysis of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). Recently, patch-based label fusion approaches have demonstrated state-of-the-art segmentation accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a new patch-based label fusion framework to perform segmentation of anatomical structures. The proposed approach uses an Optimized PAtchMatch Label fusion (OPAL) strategy that drastically reduces the computation time required for the search of similar patches. The reduced computation time of OPAL opens the way for new strategies and facilitates processing on large databases. In this paper, we investigate new perspectives offered by OPAL, by introducing a new multi-scale and multi-feature framework. During our validation on hippocampus segmentation we use two datasets: young adults in the ICBM cohort and elderly adults in the EADC-ADNI dataset. For both, OPAL is compared to state-of-the-art methods. Results show that OPAL obtained the highest median Dice coefficient (89.9% for ICBM and 90.1% for EADC-ADNI). Moreover, in both cases, OPAL produced a segmentation accuracy similar to inter-expert variability. On the EADC-ADNI dataset, we compare the hippocampal volumes obtained by manual and automatic segmentation. The volumes appear to be highly correlated that enables to perform more accurate separation of pathological populations. …

One-Shot Federated Learning google
We present one-shot federated learning, where a central server learns a global model over a network of federated devices in a single round of communication. Our approach – drawing on ensemble learning and knowledge aggregation – achieves an average relative gain of 51.5% in AUC over local baselines and comes within 90.1% of the (unattainable) global ideal. We discuss these methods and identify several promising directions of future work. …

Differentially Private Continual Learning google
Catastrophic forgetting can be a significant problem for institutions that must delete historic data for privacy reasons. For example, hospitals might not be able to retain patient data permanently. But neural networks trained on recent data alone will tend to forget lessons learned on old data. We present a differentially private continual learning framework based on variational inference. We estimate the likelihood of past data given the current model using differentially private generative models of old datasets. …

Dynamic Mirror Decent Model Predictive Control (DMD-MPC) google
Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful technique for solving dynamic control tasks. In this paper, we show that there exists a close connection between MPC and online learning, an abstract theoretical framework for analyzing online decision making in the optimization literature. This new perspective provides a foundation for leveraging powerful online learning algorithms to design MPC algorithms. Specifically, we propose a new algorithm based on dynamic mirror descent (DMD), an online learning algorithm that is designed for non-stationary setups. Our algorithm, Dynamic Mirror Decent Model Predictive Control (DMD-MPC), represents a general family of MPC algorithms that includes many existing techniques as special instances. DMD-MPC also provides a fresh perspective on previous heuristics used in MPC and suggests a principled way to design new MPC algorithms. In the experimental section of this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of DMD-MPC, presenting a set of new MPC algorithms on a simple simulated cartpole and a simulated and real-world aggressive driving task. …

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