**Random Network Distillation (RND)**

We’ve developed Random Network Distillation (RND), a prediction-based method for encouraging reinforcement learning agents to explore their environments through curiosity, which for the first time1 exceeds average human performance on Montezuma’s Revenge. RND achieves state-of-the-art performance, periodically finds all 24 rooms and solves the first level without using demonstrations or having access to the underlying state of the game. RND incentivizes visiting unfamiliar states by measuring how hard it is to predict the output of a fixed random neural network on visited states. In unfamiliar states it’s hard to guess the output, and hence the reward is high. It can be applied to any reinforcement learning algorithm, is simple to implement and efficient to scale. Below we release a reference implementation of RND that can reproduce the results from our paper. … **Greedy Algorithm**

A greedy algorithm is an algorithm that follows the problem solving heuristic of making the locally optimal choice at each stage with the hope of finding a global optimum. In many problems, a greedy strategy does not in general produce an optimal solution, but nonetheless a greedy heuristic may yield locally optimal solutions that approximate a global optimal solution in a reasonable time. For example, a greedy strategy for the traveling salesman problem (which is of a high computational complexity) is the following heuristic: ‘At each stage visit an unvisited city nearest to the current city’. This heuristic need not find a best solution, but terminates in a reasonable number of steps; finding an optimal solution typically requires unreasonably many steps. In mathematical optimization, greedy algorithms solve combinatorial problems having the properties of ➘ “Matroid”s. … **RIn-Close_CVC2**

RIn-Close_CVC is an efficient (take polynomial time per bicluster), complete (find all maximal biclusters), correct (all biclusters attend the user-defined level of consistency) and non-redundant (all the obtained biclusters are maximal and the same bicluster is not enumerated more than once) enumerative algorithm for mining maximal biclusters with constant values on columns in numerical datasets. Despite RIn-Close_CVC has all these outstanding properties, it has a high computational cost in terms of memory usage because it must keep a symbol table in memory to prevent a maximal bicluster to be found more than once. In this paper, we propose a new version of RIn-Close_CVC, named RIn-Close_CVC2, that does not use a symbol table to prevent redundant biclusters, and keeps all these four properties. We also prove that these algorithms actually possess these properties. Experiments are carried out with synthetic and real-world datasets to compare RIn-Close_CVC and RIn-Close_CVC2 in terms of memory usage and runtime. The experimental results show that RIn-Close_CVC2 brings a large reduction in memory usage and, in average, significant runtime gain when compared to its predecessor. … **Relational Graph Attention Network**

We investigate Relational Graph Attention Networks, a class of models that extends non-relational graph attention mechanisms to incorporate relational information, opening up these methods to a wider variety of problems. A thorough evaluation of these models is performed, and comparisons are made against established benchmarks. To provide a meaningful comparison, we retrain Relational Graph Convolutional Networks, the spectral counterpart of Relational Graph Attention Networks, and evaluate them under the same conditions. We find that Relational Graph Attention Networks perform worse than anticipated, although some configurations are marginally beneficial for modelling molecular properties. We provide insights as to why this may be, and suggest both modifications to evaluation strategies, as well as directions to investigate for future work. …

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Feb 2020

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