Memory Augmented Neural Network (MANN) google
Neural Turing Machines (NTMs) are an instance of Memory Augmented Neural Networks, a new class of recurrent neural networks which decouple computation from memory by introducing an external memory unit. NTMs have demonstrated superior performance over Long Short-Term Memory Cells in several sequence learning tasks. A number of open source implementations of NTMs exist but are unstable during training and/or fail to replicate the reported performance of NTMs. This paper presents the details of our successful implementation of a NTM. Our implementation learns to solve three sequential learning tasks from the original NTM paper. We find that the choice of memory contents initialization scheme is crucial in successfully implementing a NTM. Networks with memory contents initialized to small constant values converge on average 2 times faster than the next best memory contents initialization scheme. …

Slice Finder google
As machine learning (ML) systems become democratized, it becomes increasingly important to help users easily debug their models. However, current data tools are still primitive when it comes to helping users trace model performance problems all the way to the data. We focus on the particular problem of slicing data to identify subsets of the validation data where the model performs poorly. This is an important problem in model validation because the overall model performance can fail to reflect that of the smaller subsets, and slicing allows users to analyze the model performance on a more granular-level. Unlike general techniques (e.g., clustering) that can find arbitrary slices, our goal is to find interpretable slices (which are easier to take action compared to arbitrary subsets) that are problematic and large. We propose Slice Finder, which is an interactive framework for identifying such slices using statistical techniques. Applications include diagnosing model fairness and fraud detection, where identifying slices that are interpretable to humans is crucial. …

DDRL-AM google
Learning powerful discriminative features for remote sensing image scene classification is a challenging computer vision problem. In the past, most classification approaches were based on handcrafted features. However, most recent approaches to remote sensing scene classification are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The de facto practice when learning these CNN models is only to use original RGB patches as input with training performed on large amounts of labeled data (ImageNet). In this paper, we show class activation map (CAM) encoded CNN models, codenamed DDRL-AM, trained using original RGB patches and attention map based class information provide complementary information to the standard RGB deep models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate attention information encoded CNNs. Additionally, to enhance the discriminability, we further employ a recently developed object function called ‘center loss,’ which has proved to be very useful in face recognition. Finally, our framework provides attention guidance to the model in an end-to-end fashion. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets show that our approach matches or exceeds the performance of other methods. …

Short Term Attentive Working Memory Model (STAWM) google
The ability to look multiple times through a series of pose-adjusted glimpses is fundamental to human vision. This critical faculty allows us to understand highly complex visual scenes. Short term memory plays an integral role in aggregating the information obtained from these glimpses and informing our interpretation of the scene. Computational models have attempted to address glimpsing and visual attention but have failed to incorporate the notion of memory. We introduce a novel, biologically inspired visual working memory architecture that we term the Hebb-Rosenblatt memory. We subsequently introduce a fully differentiable Short Term Attentive Working Memory model (STAWM) which uses transformational attention to learn a memory over each image it sees. The state of our Hebb-Rosenblatt memory is embedded in STAWM as the weights space of a layer. By projecting different queries through this layer we can obtain goal-oriented latent representations for tasks including classification and visual reconstruction. Our model obtains highly competitive classification performance on MNIST and CIFAR-10. As demonstrated through the CelebA dataset, to perform reconstruction the model learns to make a sequence of updates to a canvas which constitute a parts-based representation. Classification with the self supervised representation obtained from MNIST is shown to be in line with the state of the art models (none of which use a visual attention mechanism). Finally, we show that STAWM can be trained under the dual constraints of classification and reconstruction to provide an interpretable visual sketchpad which helps open the ‘black-box’ of deep learning. …

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