**neuralRank**

Widespread applications of deep learning have led to a plethora of pre-trained neural network models for common tasks. Such models are often adapted from other models via transfer learning. The models may have varying training sets, training algorithms, network architectures, and hyper-parameters. For a given application, what isthe most suitable model in a model repository? This is a critical question for practical deployments but it has not received much attention. This paper introduces the novel problem of searching and ranking models based on suitability relative to a target dataset and proposes a ranking algorithm called \textit{neuralRank}. The key idea behind this algorithm is to base model suitability on the discriminating power of a model, using a novel metric to measure it. With experimental results on the MNIST, Fashion, and CIFAR10 datasets, we demonstrate that (1) neuralRank is independent of the domain, the training set, or the network architecture and (2) that the models ranked highly by neuralRank ranking tend to have higher model accuracy in practice. … **NSCaching**

Knowledge Graph (KG) embedding is a fundamental problem in data mining research with many real-world applications. It aims to encode the entities and relations in the graph into low dimensional vector space, which can be used for subsequent algorithms. Negative sampling, which samples negative triplets from non-observed ones in the training data, is an important step in KG embedding. Recently, generative adversarial network (GAN), has been introduced in negative sampling. By sampling negative triplets with large scores, these methods avoid the problem of vanishing gradient and thus obtain better performance. However, using GAN makes the original model more complex and hard to train, where reinforcement learning must be used. In this paper, motivated by the observation that negative triplets with large scores are important but rare, we propose to directly keep track of them with the cache. However, how to sample from and update the cache are two important questions. We carefully design the solutions, which are not only efficient but also achieve a good balance between exploration and exploitation. In this way, our method acts as a ‘distilled’ version of previous GA-based methods, which does not waste training time on additional parameters to fit the full distribution of negative triplets. The extensive experiments show that our method can gain significant improvement in various KG embedding models, and outperform the state-of-the-art negative sampling methods based on GAN. … **Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth**

In 1959, Arthur Samuel defined machine learning as a ‘field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed’. However, there is no deus ex machina: the learning process requires an algorithm (‘how to learn’) and a training dataset (‘what to learn from’). Today, most machine learning tasks use a technique called supervised learning: an algorithm learns patterns or behaviours from a labeled dataset. A labeled dataset containing data samples as well as the correct answer for each one of them, aka ‘ground truth’. Depending on the problem at hand, one could use labeled images (‘this is a dog’, ‘this is a cat’), labeled text (‘this is spam’, ‘this isn’t’), etc. Fortunately, developers and data scientists can now rely on a vast collection of off-the-shelf algorithms (as illustrated by the built-in algorithms in Amazon SageMaker) and of reference datasets. Deep learning has popularized image datasets such as MNIST, CIFAR-10 or ImageNet, and more are also available for tasks like machine translation or text classification. These reference datasets are extremely useful for beginners and experienced practitioners alike, but a lot of companies and organizations still need to train machine learning models on their own dataset: think about medical imaging, autonomous driving, etc. … **Short-Time Fourier Neural Network (STFNet)**

Recent advances in deep learning motivate the use of deep neural networks in Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. These networks are modelled after signal processing in the human brain, thereby leading to significant advantages at perceptual tasks such as vision and speech recognition. IoT applications, however, often measure physical phenomena, where the underlying physics (such as inertia, wireless signal propagation, or the natural frequency of oscillation) are fundamentally a function of signal frequencies, offering better features in the frequency domain. This observation leads to a fundamental question: For IoT applications, can one develop a new brand of neural network structures that synthesize features inspired not only by the biology of human perception but also by the fundamental nature of physics? Hence, in this paper, instead of using conventional building blocks (e.g., convolutional and recurrent layers), we propose a new foundational neural network building block, the Short-Time Fourier Neural Network (STFNet). It integrates a widely-used time-frequency analysis method, the Short-Time Fourier Transform, into data processing to learn features directly in the frequency domain, where the physics of underlying phenomena leave better foot-prints. STFNets bring additional flexibility to time-frequency analysis by offering novel nonlinear learnable operations that are spectral-compatible. Moreover, STFNets show that transforming signals to a domain that is more connected to the underlying physics greatly simplifies the learning process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of STFNets with extensive experiments. STFNets significantly outperform the state-of-the-art deep learning models in all experiments. A STFNet, therefore, demonstrates superior capability as the fundamental building block of deep neural networks for IoT applications for various sensor inputs. …

# If you did not already know

**04**
*Saturday*
Jan 2020

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