Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation (JMLE) google
JMLE ‘Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation’ is also called UCON, ‘Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation’. It was devised by Wright & Panchapakesan, http://www.rasch.org/memo46.htm. In this formulation, the estimate of the Rasch parameter (for which the observed data are most likely, assuming those data fit the Rasch model) occurs when the observed raw score for the parameter matches the expected raw score. ‘Joint’ means that the estimates for the persons (rows) and items (columns) and rating scale structures (if any) of the data matrix are obtained simultaneously.
“Rasch Model”


CLEVR-Dialog google
Visual Dialog is a multimodal task of answering a sequence of questions grounded in an image, using the conversation history as context. It entails challenges in vision, language, reasoning, and grounding. However, studying these subtasks in isolation on large, real datasets is infeasible as it requires prohibitively-expensive complete annotation of the ‘state’ of all images and dialogs. We develop CLEVR-Dialog, a large diagnostic dataset for studying multi-round reasoning in visual dialog. Specifically, we construct a dialog grammar that is grounded in the scene graphs of the images from the CLEVR dataset. This combination results in a dataset where all aspects of the visual dialog are fully annotated. In total, CLEVR-Dialog contains 5 instances of 10-round dialogs for about 85k CLEVR images, totaling to 4.25M question-answer pairs. We use CLEVR-Dialog to benchmark performance of standard visual dialog models; in particular, on visual coreference resolution (as a function of the coreference distance). This is the first analysis of its kind for visual dialog models that was not possible without this dataset. We hope the findings from CLEVR-Dialog will help inform the development of future models for visual dialog. Our dataset and code will be made public. …

Lazily Aggregated Gradient Coding (LAGC) google
Gradient-based distributed learning in Parameter Server (PS) computing architectures is subject to random delays due to straggling worker nodes, as well as to possible communication bottlenecks between PS and workers. Solutions have been recently proposed to separately address these impairments based on the ideas of gradient coding, worker grouping, and adaptive worker selection. This paper provides a unified analysis of these techniques in terms of wall-clock time, communication, and computation complexity measures. Furthermore, in order to combine the benefits of gradient coding and grouping in terms of robustness to stragglers with the communication and computation load gains of adaptive selection, novel strategies, named Lazily Aggregated Gradient Coding (LAGC) and Grouped-LAG (G-LAG), are introduced. Analysis and results show that G-LAG provides the best wall-clock time and communication performance, while maintaining a low computational cost, for two representative distributions of the computing times of the worker nodes. …

Unsupervised Data Augmentation (UDA) google
Despite its success, deep learning still needs large labeled datasets to succeed. Data augmentation has shown much promise in alleviating the need for more labeled data, but it so far has mostly been applied in supervised settings and achieved limited gains. In this work, we propose to apply data augmentation to unlabeled data in a semi-supervised learning setting. Our method, named Unsupervised Data Augmentation or UDA, encourages the model predictions to be consistent between an unlabeled example and an augmented unlabeled example. Unlike previous methods that use random noise such as Gaussian noise or dropout noise, UDA has a small twist in that it makes use of harder and more realistic noise generated by state-of-the-art data augmentation methods. This small twist leads to substantial improvements on six language tasks and three vision tasks even when the labeled set is extremely small. For example, on the IMDb text classification dataset, with only 20 labeled examples, UDA outperforms the state-of-the-art model trained on 25,000 labeled examples. On standard semi-supervised learning benchmarks, CIFAR-10 with 4,000 examples and SVHN with 1,000 examples, UDA outperforms all previous approaches and reduces more than $30\%$ of the error rates of state-of-the-art methods: going from 7.66% to 5.27% and from 3.53% to 2.46% respectively. UDA also works well on datasets that have a lot of labeled data. For example, on ImageNet, with 1.3M extra unlabeled data, UDA improves the top-1/top-5 accuracy from 78.28/94.36% to 79.04/94.45% when compared to AutoAugment. …