The field of fluid mechanics is rapidly advancing, driven by unprecedented volumes of data from experiments, field measurements, and large-scale simulations at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Machine learning presents us with a wealth of techniques to extract information from data that can be translated into knowledge about the underlying fluid mechanics. Moreover, machine learning algorithms can augment domain knowledge and automate tasks related to flow control and optimization. This article presents an overview of past history, current developments, and emerging opportunities of machine learning for fluid mechanics. We outline fundamental machine learning methodologies and discuss their uses for understanding, modeling, optimizing, and controlling fluid flows. The strengths and limitations of these methods are addressed from the perspective of scientific inquiry that links data with modeling, experiments, and simulations. Machine learning provides a powerful information processing framework that can augment, and possibly even transform, current lines of fluid mechanics research and industrial applications. Machine Learning for Fluid Mechanics