Recurrent Attention Unit (RAU) google
Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) has been successfully applied in many sequence learning problems. Such as handwriting recognition, image description, natural language processing and video motion analysis. After years of development, researchers have improved the internal structure of the RNN and introduced many variants. Among others, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) is one of the most widely used RNN model. However, GRU lacks the capability of adaptively paying attention to certain regions or locations, so that it may cause information redundancy or loss during leaning. In this paper, we propose a RNN model, called Recurrent Attention Unit (RAU), which seamlessly integrates the attention mechanism into the interior of GRU by adding an attention gate. The attention gate can enhance GRU’s ability to remember long-term memory and help memory cells quickly discard unimportant content. RAU is capable of extracting information from the sequential data by adaptively selecting a sequence of regions or locations and pay more attention to the selected regions during learning. Extensive experiments on image classification, sentiment classification and language modeling show that RAU consistently outperforms GRU and other baseline methods. …

Customer Segmentation google
The act of separating a group of clients into sets of similar individuals that are related from a marketing or demographicperspective. For example, a business that practices customer segmentation might group its current or potential customers according to their gender, buying tendencies, age group, and special interests. …

Bayes Imbalance Impact Index (BI^3) google
Recent studies have shown that imbalance ratio is not the only cause of the performance loss of a classifier in imbalanced data classification. In fact, other data factors, such as small disjuncts, noises and overlapping, also play the roles in tandem with imbalance ratio, which makes the problem difficult. Thus far, the empirical studies have demonstrated the relationship between the imbalance ratio and other data factors only. To the best of our knowledge, there is no any measurement about the extent of influence of class imbalance on the classification performance of imbalanced data. Further, it is also unknown for a dataset which data factor is actually the main barrier for classification. In this paper, we focus on Bayes optimal classifier and study the influence of class imbalance from a theoretical perspective. Accordingly, we propose an instance measure called Individual Bayes Imbalance Impact Index ($IBI^3$) and a data measure called Bayes Imbalance Impact Index ($BI^3$). $IBI^3$ and $BI^3$ reflect the extent of influence purely by the factor of imbalance in terms of each minority class sample and the whole dataset, respectively. Therefore, $IBI^3$ can be used as an instance complexity measure of imbalance and $BI^3$ is a criterion to show the degree of how imbalance deteriorates the classification. As a result, we can therefore use $BI^3$ to judge whether it is worth using imbalance recovery methods like sampling or cost-sensitive methods to recover the performance loss of a classifier. The experiments show that $IBI^3$ is highly consistent with the increase of prediction score made by the imbalance recovery methods and $BI^3$ is highly consistent with the improvement of F1 score made by the imbalance recovery methods on both synthetic and real benchmark datasets. …

Metric-Constrained Union-of-Subspaces (MC-UoS) google
Modern information processing relies on the axiom that high-dimensional data lie near low-dimensional geometric structures. This paper revisits the problem of data-driven learning of these geometric structures and puts forth two new nonlinear geometric models for data describing ‘related’ objects/phenomena. The first one of these models straddles the two extremes of the subspace model and the union-of-subspaces model, and is termed the metric-constrained union-of-subspaces (MC-UoS) model. The second one of these models—suited for data drawn from a mixture of nonlinear manifolds—generalizes the kernel subspace model, and is termed the metric-constrained kernel union-of-subspaces (MC-KUoS) model. The main contributions of this paper in this regard include the following. First, it motivates and formalizes the problems of MC-UoS and MC-KUoS learning. Second, it presents algorithms that efficiently learn an MC-UoS or an MC-KUoS underlying data of interest. Third, it extends these algorithms to the case when parts of the data are missing. Last, but not least, it reports the outcomes of a series of numerical experiments involving both synthetic and real data that demonstrate the superiority of the proposed geometric models and learning algorithms over existing approaches in the literature. These experiments also help clarify the connections between this work and the literature on (subspace and kernel k-means) clustering.