Stanford DAWN Project google
Despite incredible recent advances in machine learning, building machine learning applications remains prohibitively time-consuming and expensive for all but the best-trained, best-funded engineering organizations. This expense comes not from a need for new and improved statistical models but instead from a lack of systems and tools for supporting end-to-end machine learning application development, from data preparation and labeling to productionization and monitoring. In this document, we outline opportunities for infrastructure supporting usable, end-to-end machine learning applications in the context of the nascent DAWN (Data Analytics for What’s Next) project at Stanford. …

Direct Optimization google
The Deep Learning (DL) community sees many novel topologies published each year. Achieving high performance on each new topology remains challenging, as each requires some level of manual effort. This issue is compounded by the proliferation of frameworks and hardware platforms. The current approach, which we call ‘direct optimization’, requires deep changes within each framework to improve the training performance for each hardware backend (CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs, ASICs) and requires $\mathcal{O}(fp)$ effort; where $f$ is the number of frameworks and $p$ is the number of platforms. While optimized kernels for deep-learning primitives are provided via libraries like Intel Math Kernel Library for Deep Neural Networks (MKL-DNN), there are several compiler-inspired ways in which performance can be further optimized. Building on our experience creating neon (a fast deep learning library on GPUs), we developed Intel nGraph, a soon to be open-sourced C++ library to simplify the realization of optimized deep learning performance across frameworks and hardware platforms. Initially-supported frameworks include TensorFlow, MXNet, and Intel neon framework. Initial backends are Intel Architecture CPUs (CPU), the Intel(R) Nervana Neural Network Processor(R) (NNP), and NVIDIA GPUs. Currently supported compiler optimizations include efficient memory management and data layout abstraction. In this paper, we describe our overall architecture and its core components. In the future, we envision extending nGraph API support to a wider range of frameworks, hardware (including FPGAs and ASICs), and compiler optimizations (training versus inference optimizations, multi-node and multi-device scaling via efficient sub-graph partitioning, and HW-specific compounding of operations). …

Prediction Factory google
In this paper, we present a data science automation system called Prediction Factory. The system uses several key automation algorithms to enable data scientists to rapidly develop predictive models and share them with domain experts. To assess the system’s impact, we implemented 3 different interfaces for creating predictive modeling projects: baseline automation, full automation, and optional automation. With a dataset of online grocery shopper behaviors, we divided data scientists among the interfaces to specify prediction problems, learn and evaluate models, and write a report for domain experts to judge whether or not to fund to continue working on. In total, 22 data scientists created 94 reports that were judged 296 times by 26 experts. In a head-to-head trial, reports generated utilizing full data science automation interface reports were funded 57.5% of the time, while the ones that used baseline automation were only funded 42.5% of the time. An intermediate interface which supports optional automation generated reports were funded 58.6% more often compared to the baseline. Full automation and optional automation reports were funded about equally when put head-to-head. These results demonstrate that Prediction Factory has implemented a critical amount of automation to augment the role of data scientists and improve business outcomes. …

Deep Ensemble Bayesian Active Learning (DEBAL) google
In image classification tasks, the ability of deep CNNs to deal with complex image data has proven to be unrivalled. However, they require large amounts of labeled training data to reach their full potential. In specialised domains such as healthcare, labeled data can be difficult and expensive to obtain. Active Learning aims to alleviate this problem, by reducing the amount of labelled data needed for a specific task while delivering satisfactory performance. We propose DEBAL, a new active learning strategy designed for deep neural networks. This method improves upon the current state-of-the-art deep Bayesian active learning method, which suffers from the mode collapse problem. We correct for this deficiency by making use of the expressive power and statistical properties of model ensembles. Our proposed method manages to capture superior data uncertainty, which translates into improved classification performance. We demonstrate empirically that our ensemble method yields faster convergence of CNNs trained on the MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets. …

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