FIA google
Latent factor models (LFMs) such as matrix factorization achieve the state-of-the-art performance among various Collaborative Filtering (CF) approaches for recommendation. Despite the high recommendation accuracy of LFMs, a critical issue to be resolved is the lack of explainability. Extensive efforts have been made in the literature to incorporate explainability into LFMs. However, they either rely on auxiliary information which may not be available in practice, or fail to provide easy-to-understand explanations. In this paper, we propose a fast influence analysis method named FIA, which successfully enforces explicit neighbor-style explanations to LFMs with the technique of influence functions stemmed from robust statistics. We first describe how to employ influence functions to LFMs to deliver neighbor-style explanations. Then we develop a novel influence computation algorithm for matrix factorization with high efficiency. We further extend it to the more general neural collaborative filtering and introduce an approximation algorithm to accelerate influence analysis over neural network models. Experimental results on real datasets demonstrate the correctness, efficiency and usefulness of our proposed method. …

Rescaled Gradient Descent (RGD) google
The connection between continuous-time dynamics and discrete-time algorithms has led to the introduction of many methods in optimization. We add to this body of work by introducing a family of descent dynamics and descent algorithms with matching non-asymptotic convergence guarantees. We use this framework to introduce a new first-order algorithm, called rescaled gradient descent (RGD), and show that RGD achieves a faster convergence rate than gradient descent provided the function is strongly smooth – a natural generalization of the standard smoothness assumption on the objective function. When the objective function is convex, we present two frameworks for accelerating descent methods, one in the style of Nesterov and the other in the style of Monteiro and Svaiter. Rescaled gradient descent can be accelerated under the same strong smoothness assumption using both frameworks. We provide several examples of strongly smooth loss functions in machine learning and numerical experiments that verify our theoretical findings. …

Federated Forest google
Most real-world data are scattered across different companies or government organizations, and cannot be easily integrated under data privacy and related regulations such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and China’ Cyber Security Law. Such data islands situation and data privacy & security are two major challenges for applications of artificial intelligence. In this paper, we tackle these challenges and propose a privacy-preserving machine learning model, called Federated Forest, which is a lossless learning model of the traditional random forest method, i.e., achieving the same level of accuracy as the non-privacy-preserving approach. Based on it, we developed a secure cross-regional machine learning system that allows a learning process to be jointly trained over different regions’ clients with the same user samples but different attribute sets, processing the data stored in each of them without exchanging their raw data. A novel prediction algorithm was also proposed which could largely reduce the communication overhead. Experiments on both real-world and UCI data sets demonstrate the performance of the Federated Forest is as accurate as the non-federated version. The efficiency and robustness of our proposed system had been verified. Overall, our model is practical, scalable and extensible for real-life tasks. …

PyTorch-BigGraph (PBG) google
Graph embedding methods produce unsupervised node features from graphs that can then be used for a variety of machine learning tasks. Modern graphs, particularly in industrial applications, contain billions of nodes and trillions of edges, which exceeds the capability of existing embedding systems. We present PyTorch-BigGraph (PBG), an embedding system that incorporates several modifications to traditional multi-relation embedding systems that allow it to scale to graphs with billions of nodes and trillions of edges. PBG uses graph partitioning to train arbitrarily large embeddings on either a single machine or in a distributed environment. We demonstrate comparable performance with existing embedding systems on common benchmarks, while allowing for scaling to arbitrarily large graphs and parallelization on multiple machines. We train and evaluate embeddings on several large social network graphs as well as the full Freebase dataset, which contains over 100 million nodes and 2 billion edges. …

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