Recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its sub-branch machine learning (ML) promise machines that go beyond the boundaries of automation and behave autonomously. Applications of these machines in creative practices such as art and design entail relationships between users and machines that have been described as a form of collaboration or co-creation between computational and human agents. This paper uses examples from art and design to argue that this frame is incomplete as it fails to acknowledge the socio-technical nature of AI systems, and the different human agencies involved in their design, implementation, and operation. Situating applications of AI-enabled tools in creative practices in a spectrum between automation and autonomy, this paper distinguishes different kinds of human engagement elicited by systems deemed automated or autonomous. Reviewing models of artistic collaboration during the late 20th century, it suggests that collaboration is at the core of these artistic practices. We build upon the growing literature of machine learning and art to look for the human agencies inscribed in works of computational creativity, and expand the co-creation frame to incorporate emerging forms of human-human collaboration mediated through technical artifacts such as algorithms and data.
A rich literature has explored the modeling of homophily and other forms of nonuniform mixing associated with individual-level covariates within the exponential family random graph (ERGM) framework. Such differential mixing does not fully explain phenomena such as stigma, however, which involve the active maintenance of social boundaries by ostracism of persons with out-group ties. Here, we introduce a new statistic that allows for such effects to be captured, making it possible to probe for the potential presence of boundary maintenance above and beyond simple differences in nomination rates. We demonstrate this statistic in the context of gender segregation in a school classroom.
We discuss the organisation of internet communities, focusing on what we call the principle of ‘bait and switch’: founders of internet communities often find it advantageous to recruit members by promising inducements which are later not honoured. We look at some of the dilemmas and ways of attempting to resolve them through two paradigmatic examples, Wikispaces and WordPress. Our analysis is to a large extent motivated by the demands of CALLector, a university-centred social network we are in the process of establishing. We consider the question of what ethical standards are imposed on universities engaged in this type of activity.
More and more software practitioners are tackling towards industrial applications of artificial intelligence (AI) systems, especially those based on machine learning (ML). However, many of existing principles and approaches to traditional systems do not work effectively for the system behavior obtained by training not by logical design. In addition, unique kinds of requirements are emerging such as fairness and explainability. To provide clear guidance to understand and tackle these difficulties, we present an analysis on what quality concepts we should evaluate for AI systems. We base our discussion on ISO/IEC 25000 series, known as SQuaRE, and identify how it should be adapted for the unique nature of ML and $\textit{Ethics guidelines for trustworthy AI}$ from European Commission. We thus provide holistic insights for quality of AI systems by incorporating the ML nature and AI ethics to the traditional software quality concepts.
Future robots should follow human social norms in order to be useful and accepted in human society. In this paper, we leverage already existing social knowledge in human societies by capturing it in our framework through the notion of social norms. We show how norms can be used to guide a reinforcement learning agent towards achieving normative behavior and apply the same set of norms over different domains. Thus, we are able to: (1) provide a way to intuitively encode social knowledge (through norms); (2) guide learning towards normative behaviors (through an automatic norm reward system); and (3) achieve a transfer of learning by abstracting policies; Finally, (4) the method is not dependent on a particular RL algorithm. We show how our approach can be seen as a means to achieve abstract representation and learn procedural knowledge based on the declarative semantics of norms and discuss possible implications of this in some areas of cognitive science.
Knowledge Tracing (KT) is to trace the knowledge of students as they solve a sequence of problems represented by their related skills. This involves abstract concepts of students’ states of knowledge and the interactions between those states and skills. Therefore, a KT model is designed to predict whether students will give correct answers and to describe such abstract concepts. However, existing methods either give relatively low prediction accuracy or fail to explain those concepts intuitively. In this paper, we propose a new model called Knowledge Query Network (KQN) to solve these problems. KQN uses neural networks to encode student learning activities into knowledge state and skill vectors, and models the interactions between the two types of vectors with the dot product. Through this, we introduce a novel concept called \textit{probabilistic skill similarity} that relates the pairwise cosine and Euclidean distances between skill vectors to the odds ratios of the corresponding skills, which makes KQN interpretable and intuitive. On four public datasets, we have carried out experiments to show the following: 1. KQN outperforms all the existing KT models based on prediction accuracy. 2. The interaction between the knowledge state and skills can be visualized for interpretation. 3. Based on probabilistic skill similarity, a skill domain can be analyzed with clustering using the distances between the skill vectors of KQN. 4. For different values of the vector space dimensionality, KQN consistently exhibits high prediction accuracy and a strong positive correlation between the distance matrices of the skill vectors.
The singularity refers to an idea that once a machine having an artificial intelligence surpassing the human intelligence capacity is created, it will trigger explosive technological and intelligence growth. I propose to test the hypothesis that machine intelligence capacity can grow autonomously starting with an intelligence comparable to that of bacteria – microbial intelligence. The goal will be to demonstrate that rapid growth in intelligence capacity can be realized at all in artificial computing systems. I propose the following three properties that may allow an artificial intelligence to exhibit a steady growth in its intelligence capacity: (i) learning with the ability to modify itself when exposed to more data, (ii) acquiring new functionalities (skills), and (iii) expanding or replicating itself. The algorithms must demonstrate a rapid growth in skills of dataprocessing and analysis and gain qualitatively different functionalities, at least until the current computing technology supports their scalable development. The existing algorithms that already encompass some of these or similar properties, as well as missing abilities that must yet be implemented, will be reviewed in this work. Future computational tests could support or oppose the hypothesis that artificial intelligence can potentially grow to the level of superintelligence which overcomes the limitations in hardware by producing necessary processing resources or by changing the physical realization of computation from using chip circuits to using quantum computing principles.
As Microsoft seeks to make data-sharing across companies easier and more pervasive, company officials have seen areas where roadblocks can occur. Prevalent among these are the lack of consistent, standardized data-sharing terms and licensing agreements. On July 23, the company took a first potential step toward remedying this gap. Microsoft is making publicly available today the first drafts of three proposed data-sharing agreements. It is looking for community feedback and input on them over the next few months. Each of the three is designed for particular data-sharing scenarios between companies — not individuals — and is covered by the Creative Commons license. Some of these agreements will be published on Microsoft’s GitHub code-sharing site. Microsoft officials said they believe these kinds of agreements could alleviate the need of companies to spend months or years negotiating and creating data-sharing governance agreements.